In the other view the spermatia are the male sexual cells and thus A, Optical longitudinal section of the ex are rightly named; it tremity of a thin branch of the thallus should, however, be which has become transparent in pointed out that this solution of potash.
In favour of the conidial view is the fact that in the case of Collema and a few other forms the spermatia have been made to germinate in artificial cultures, and in the case of Calicium parietinum Moller succeeded in producing a spermogonia bearing thallus from a spermatium.
For the germination of the spermatia in nature there is only the observation of Hedlund, that in Catillaria denigrata and C. prasena a thallus may be derived from the spermatia under natural conditions.
The resemblance of the spermatia and spermogonia to those of Uredineae should be pointed out, where also there is considerable evidence for their original sexual nature, though they appear in that group to be functionless in all cases.
M, Medullary layer of the C, Cladonia novae Angliae, B, Portion of a very thin Delise; sterigmata section from the base with spermatia from of the spermogonium.
As the remarks on the nature of the spermatia show, the question of the sexuality of the lichens has been hotly disputed in common with that of the rest of the Ascomycetes.
In Collema and a form like Xanthoria parietina it is probable that actual fertilization takes place, and possibly also in some of the other forms. It is probable, however, that in the majority of cases the ascogonia develop without normal fertilization, as is necessarily the case where the ascogonia have no trichogynes or the spermatia are absent.
Then a hollow appears in the centre owing to the more rapid extension of the outer parts, and into this hollow the cells lining it put forth short sporogenous branches, from the tips of which the spores (stylospores, c nidia, spermatia) are abstricted.
In many cases the slimy masses of spermatia (Uredineae), conidia (Claviceps), basidiospores (Phallus, Coprinus), &c., emit more or less powerful odours, which attract flies or other insects, and it has been shown that bees carry the flagrant oidia of Sclerotinia to the stigma of Vaccinium and infect it, and that flies carry away the foetid spores of Phallus, just as pollen is dispersed by such insects.
The male organ (antheridium) consists of a few cells, the terminal one of which either abstricts from its end, or emits from its interior the non-motile spermatia, reminding us of those of the Florideae.
These three elements - trichogyne, trichophoric cell, and carpogenic cell - are regarded as the procarp. The spermatia have been shown by Thaxter to fuse with the trichogyne, after which the axial cell below (carpogenic cell) undergoes divisions, and ultimately forms asci containing ascospores, while cells investing this form a perithecium, the whole structure reminding us essentially of the fructification of a Pyrenomycete.
When the sporidia infect a plant the mycelium so produced gives origin to aecidiospores and spermatia; the aecidiospores on infection produce a mycelium which bears uredospores and later teleutospores.
In brachy and hemi the aecidiospores are absent, the mycelium from the sporidia giving origin directly to the uredospores; the former possess spermatia, in the latter they are absent.
In all cases of heteroecism the sporidia infect one host leading to the production of aecidiospores and spermatia (if present), while the aecidiospores are only able to infect another B /., f.
Spermatia is that they are D, Ripe aecidiospore.
Batrachospermum sp., trichogyne with spermatia attached; carpo B.
Fertilization by means of non-motile spermatia and a trichogyne are known among the Fungi in the families Collemaceae and Laboulbeniaceae.