Dean crossed his fingers and hoped this affiance would spawn fewer complications than the last.
The mycelium produced from the spores dropped by the fungus or from the "spawn" in the soil, radiates outwards, and each year's successive crop of fungi rises from the new growth round the circle.
The breeding season lasts throughout spring and summer, and the female is able to spawn two, three or even four times in the year.
The spawn of the angler is very remarkable.
The siawan is a species of fish found in the rivers and valued for its spawn, which is salted.
In about ten days, when the mass is milkwarm, the bed will be ready for spawning, which consists of inserting small pieces of spawn bricks into the sloping sides of the bed, about 6 in.
Towards the end of May the old fish become heavy with spawn and are in the highest condition for the table; and the latter half of June or beginning of July may be regarded as the time at which the greater part of mackerel spawn.
The stable manure is taken into the tortuous passages of these cellars, and the spawn introduced from masses of dry dung where it occurs naturally.
In France mushroom-growers do not use the compact blocks or bricks of spawn so familiar in England, but much smaller flakes or "leaves" of dry dung in which the spawn or mycelium can be seen to exist.
This spawn may be obtained from old pastures, or decayed mushroom beds, and is purchased from nurserymen in the form of bricks charged with the mycelium, and technically known as mushroom spawn.
So far as is known at present, all sticklebacks construct a nest for the reception or the spawn, which is jealously guarded by the male until the young are hatched, which event takes place in from ten to eighteen days after oviposition.
Buonanni, a learned Jesuit of Rome) that they are not generated out of the mud or sand found on the seashore or the beds of rivers at low water, but from spawn, by the regular course of generation; and he maintained the same to be true of the fresh-water mussel (Unio), whose ova he examined so carefully that he saw in them the rotation of the embryo, a phenomenon supposed to have been first discovered long afterwards.
The explanation appears to be that the shallow and landlocked waters of the Zuider Zee, as well as the sea on the Dutch coast, become raised to a higher temperature in summer than any part of the sea about the British coasts, and that therefore anchovies are able to spawn and maintain their numbers in these waters.
The true mushroom itself is to a great extent a dung-borne species, therefore mushroom-beds are always liable to an invasion from other dung-borne forms. The spores of all fungi are constantly floating about in the air, and when the spores of dung-infesting species alight on a mushroom-bed they find a nidus already prepared that exactly suits them; and if the spawn of the new-comer becomes more profuse than that of the mushroom the stranger takes up his position at the expense of the mushroom.
The spawn of the herring is adhesive, and is deposited on rough gravelly ground at varying distances from the coast and always in comparatively shallow water.
There is also a fungus named Xylaria vaporaria, which sometimes fixes itself on mushroombeds and produces such an enormous quantity of string-like spawn that the entire destruction of the bed results.
The common mushroom (Agaricus campestris) is propagated by spores, the fine black dust seen to be thrown off when a mature specimen is laid on white paper or a white dish; these give rise to what is known as the "spawn" or mycelium, which consists of whitish threads permeating dried dung or similar substances, and which, when planted in a proper medium, runs through the mass, and eventually develops the fructification known as the mushroom.
The beds made partly of old mushroom-bed dung often contain sufficient spawn to yield a crop, without the introduction of brick or cake spawn, but it is advisable to spawn them in the regular way.
The first two are migratory, entering rivers in the spring to spawn; of the river-lamprey, however, specimens are met with in fresh water all the year round.
Amongst the loose tissue of the leaf numerous transparent threads are shown; these are the mycelial threads or spawn of the fungus; wherever they touch the leaf-cells they pierce or break down the tissue, and so set up decomposition, as indicated by the darker shading.
This spawn is sometimes so profuse that it is pulled out of the beds in enormous masses and carted away in barrows.
It was not until 1876 that the axolotl in its Amblystoma state, offspring of several generations of perennibranchiates, was first observed to spawn, and this again took place in the reptile house of the Jardin des Plantes, as reported by Professor E.
The equable temperature of these cellars and their freedom from drought is one cause of their great success; to this must be added the natural virgin spawn, for by continually using spawn taken from mushroom-producing beds the potency for reproduction is weakened.
Those which breed in winter or spring deposit their spawn near the coast at the mouths of estuaries, and ascend the estuaries to a considerable distance at certain times, as in the Firths of Forth and Clyde, while those which spawn in summer or autumn belong more to the open sea, e.g.
Plaice, like other flat-fishes, prefer a sandy flat bottom to a rocky ground, and occur in suitable localities in great abundance; they spawn early in spring, and are in finest condition in the month of May.
It any state most plants feed greedily upon it, and when pure or free from decaying wood or sticks it is a very safe ingredient in composts; but it is so liable to generate fungus, and the mycelium or spawn of certain fungi is so injurious to the roots of trees, attacking them if at all sickly or weakened by drought, that many cultivators prefer not' to mix leaf-mould with the soil used for permanent plants, as peaches or choice ornamental trees.
The fertilization of the spawn is very easily effected.
The eggs are collected either by "stripping" them from the mature adult immediately after capture, or by keeping the adults alive until they are ready to spawn, and then stripping them or by keeping them in reservoirs of sea-water and allowing them to spawn of their own accord.
The spawn is free in the sea.