The Spartan patriciate could afford to disfranchise some of its own members.
They were seated two tables away from Dean and appeared to be celebrating something unusual in an otherwise Spartan life.
Plato advocated them, and perhaps the later Jews imitated the Spartan community.
The popularity of these elegies in the Spartan army was such that, according to Athenaeus (xiv.
The term apella does not occur in extant Spartan inscriptions, though two decrees of Gythium belonging to the Roman period refer to the p€y&Xac 67r4XXac (Le Bas-Foucart, Voyage archeologique, ii., Nos.
In 195 B.C. the Laconian coast towns were freed from Spartan rule by the Roman general T.
After a bloody defeat at the hands of the neighbouring mountaineers (409) the Spartan governor quarrelled with the native settlers, whom he expelled in 399.
In 457 the Athenians and their allies ventured to intercept a Spartan force which was returning home from central Greece.
Upon news of this disaster Phocis, Locris and Euboea revolted, and the Megarians massacred their Athenian garrison, while a Spartan army penetrated into Attica as far as Eleusis.
In the Spartan general Lysander he found a man who was willing to help him, as Lysander himself hoped to become absolute ruler of Greece by the aid of the Persian prince.
So Cyrus put all his means at the disposal of Lysander in the Peloponnesian War, but denied them to his successor Callicratidas; by exerting his influence in Sparta, he brought it about that after the battle of Arginusae Lysander was sent out a second time as the real commander (though under a nominal chief) of the Spartan fleet in 405 (Xen.
AGIS, the name of four Spartan kings: (1) Son of Eurysthenes, founder of the royal house of the Agiadae (Pausanias iii.
He succeeded his father, probably in 427 B.C., and from his first invasion of Attica in 425 down to the close of the Peloponnesian war was the chief leader of the Spartan operations on land.
Though too weak and good-natured to cope with the problem which confronted him, Agis was characterized by a sincerity of purpose and a blend of youthful modesty with royal dignity, which render him perhaps the most attractive figure in the whole of Spartan history.
In 457 an attempt to extend their influence to the head waters of the Cephissus in the territory of Doris brought a Spartan army into Phocis in defence of the "metropolis of the Dorians."
Besides securing her Aegean possessions and her commerce by the defeat of Corinth and Aegina, her last rivals on sea, Athens acquired an extensive dominion in central Greece and for a time quite overshadowed the Spartan land-power.
Though the Roman slaves were not, like the Spartan Helots, kept obedient by systematic terrorism, their large numbers were a constant source of danger.
When Procles the tyrant was carried captive by Periander of Corinth, the oligarchy was restored, and the people of Epidaurus continued ever afterwards close allies of the Spartan power.
He was victorious in the pitched battle fought at the foot of Ithome in the fifth year of his reign, a battle in which the Messenians, reinforced by the entire Arcadian levy and picked contingents from Argos and Sicyon, defeated the combined Spartan and Corinthian forces.
The second act of the drama may be said to open with the irretrievable blunder of Nicias in letting the Spartan Gylippus first land in Sicily, and then march at the head of a small army, partly levied on the spot, across the island, and enter Syracuse by way of Epipolae, past Euryelus.
It was said to have been founded by Megarians and Argives under Byzas about 6S7 B.C., but the original settlement having been destroyed in the reign of Darius Hystaspes by the satrap Otanes, it was recolonized by the Spartan Pausanias, who wrested it from the Medes after the battle of Plataea (479 B.C.) - a circumstance which led several ancient chroniclers to ascribe its foundation to him.
The memory of the defeat of the Spartan king Cleonymus by the fleet of Patavium in 302 B.C. was perpetuated by Spartan spoils in the temple of Juno and a yearly sea-fight which took place on the river.
This confederacy, which after many modifications and vicissitudes was finally broken up by the capture of Athens by Sparta in 404, was revived in 378-7 (the "Second Athenian Confederacy") as a protection against Spartan aggression, and lasted, at least formally, until the victory of Philip II.
Moreover, it chanced that at the time the Spartan leaders were not men of strong character or general ability.
In any case the inelastic quality of the Spartan system was unable to adapt itself to the spirit of the new age.
The gross selfishness of the Spartans, herein exemplified, was emphasized by their capture of the Theban citadel, and, after their expulsion, by the raid upon Attica in time of peace by the Spartan Sphodrias, and his immunity from punishment at Sparta (summer of 378 B.C.).
At this point Sparta was roused to a sense of the significance of the new confederacy, and the Athenian corn supply was threatened by a Spartan fleet of sixty triremes.
The legend of a Dorian invasion appears first in Tyrtaeus, a 7thcentury poet, in the service of Sparta, who brings the Spartan Heracleids to Peloponnese from Erineon in the northern Doris; and the lost Epic of Aegimius, of about the same date, seems to have presupposed the same story.
Herodotus distinguished the " local "from the " poetic " versions of events in early Spartan history, but much seems to be referable to Ephorus and the 4th-century political and rhetorical historians: - e.g.
Tarentum alone, partly from Spartan origin, partly through stress of local conditions, shows traces of militant asceticism for a while.
Since 387 the Spartan party was again supreme, and after Leuctra Corinth took the field against the Theban invaders of Peloponnesus (371-366).
For most of the period in question Thucydides is the only source; and despite the inherent merits of a great writer, it can hardly be doubted that the tribute of almost unqualified praise that successive generations of scholars have paid to Thucydides must have been in some measure qualified if, for example, a Spartan account of the Peloponnesian War had been preserved to us.
According to a tradition, possibly more authentic, they were re-established by Iphitus, king of Elis, in concert with the Spartan Lycurgus and Cleosthenes of Pisa.
When in 399 war broke out between Sparta and Persia, the Persian troops in Asia Minor were quite unable to resist the Spartan armies.
The active and energetic Persian general Pharnabazus succeeded in creating a fleet by the help of Evagoras, king of Salamis in Cyprus, and the Athenian commander Conon, and destroyed the Spartan fleet at Cnidus (August 394).
The consequence was that, when in 388 the Spartan admiral Antalcidas came to Susa, the king was induced to conclude a peace with Sparta by which Asia fell to him and European Greece to Sparta.
Ahaavapos), son of Aristocritus, Spartan admiral and diplomatist.
By 404 he was the most powerful man in the Greek world and set about completing the task of building up a Spartan empire in which he should be supreme in fact if not in name.
Everywhere democracies were replaced by oligarchies directed by bodies of ten men (decarchies, 6EKapXiac) under the control of Spartan governors (harmosts, appoarai).
To this end he shrank from no treachery or cruelty; yet, like Agesilaus, he was totally free from the characteristic Spartan vice of avarice, and died, as he had lived, a poor man.
They are mainly elegiac and in the Ionic dialect, written partly in praise of the Spartan constitution an King Theopompus (Ebvoµia), partly to stimulate the Spartan soldiers to deeds of heroism in the field (`T7roOi icacthe title is, however, later than Tyrtaeus).
In the 6th century it was still insignificant as compared with the neighbouring city of Tegea, and submitted more readily to Spartan overlordship. The political history of Mantineia begins soon after the Persian wars, when its five constituent villages, at the suggestion of Argos, were merged into one city, whose military strength forthwith secured it a leading position in the Peloponnesus.
About 235 B.C. Mantineia entered the Achaean League, from which it had obtained protection against Spartan encroachments, but soon passed in turn to the Aetolians and to Cleomenes III.
In the subsequent years Mantineia still found opportunity to give the Athenians covert help, and during the Corinthian War (394387) scarcely disguised its sympathy with the anti-Spartan league.
But the long-standing jealousy against Tegea, and a recent one against the new foundation of Megalopolis, created dissensions which resulted in Mantineia passing over to the Spartan side.
Was first formed in 470 B.C. by the "synoecism" of the neighbouring villages, the river Ophis flowed through the midst of it, and the Spartan king Agesipolis dammed it up below the town and so flooded out the Mantineians and sapped their walls, which were of unbaked brick.
SYNESIUS (c. 373 - c. 414), bishop of Ptolemais in the Libyan Pentapolis after 410, was born of wealthy parents, who claimed descent from Spartan kings, at Cyrene between 370 and 375.
Furthermore he warned Athens against the treason of the extreme oligarchs, and induced the troops to raze a mole erected to facilitate a Spartan descent on Peiraeus.
In this crisis Pericles induced the Spartan leaders to retreat, apparently by means of.
Athens at once appealed to Sparta to punish this act of medism, and Cleomenes I., one of the Spartan kings, crossed over to the island, to arrest those who were responsible for it.
During the next twenty years the philo-laconian policy of Cimon secured Aegina, as a member of the Spartan league, from attack.
The mountainous country, ill-suited for agricultural purposes, was well adapted for these hardy warriors,whose training was Spartan in its simplicity and severity.
The supreme governing authority was vested in magistrates called Cosmi, answering in some measure to the Spartan Ephori, but there was nothing corresponding to the two kings at Sparta.
By dexterous management and large promises he overcame the scruples of the Greek troops against the length and danger of the war; a Spartan fleet of thirty-five triremes sent to Cilicia opened the passes of the Amanus into Syria and conveyed to him a Spartan detachment of 700 men under Cheirisophus.
After a short Spartan occupation in 224 it was again surrendered to Macedonia.