He afterwards became a pupil of the Sorbonne, and received the degree of B.D.
Appointed to a lectureship at the Ecole Normale Superieure in February 1870, to a professorship at the Paris faculty of letters in 1875, and to the chair of medieval history created for him at the Sorbonne in 1878, he applied himself to the study of the political institutions of ancient France.
Throughout his historical career - at the Ecole Normale and the Sorbonne and in his lectures delivered to the empress Eugenie - his sole aim was to ascertain the truth, and in the defence of truth his polemics against what he imagined to be the blindness and insincerity of his critics sometimes assumed a character of harshness and injustice.
His De Maria Magdalena et triduo Christi disceptatio (1517) provoked violent controversy and was condemned by the Sorbonne (1521).
He was educated for the Church, and at the Sorbonne, to which he was admitted in 1749 (being then styled abbe de Brucourt), he delivered two remarkable Latin dissertations, On the Benefits which the Christian Religion has conferred on Mankind, and On the Historical Progress of the Human Mind.
On account of these works he was made Docteur-es-lettres of the Sorbonne and professor of philosophy at Rochefort (1840).
In 1864 he was appointed to the chair of philosophy at the Sorbonne, and elected a member of the academy of the moral and political sciences.
He was ordained priest in 1849, and was professor of ecclesiastical history at the Sorbonne from 1854 to 1856.
Balard at the Ecole Normale, and in 1859 became professor at the Sorbonne in place of J.
Hardly less important was his rebuilding of the Sorbonne and his endowments there.
When he died, on the 4th of December 1642, he was buried in the chapel of the Sorbonne, which still stands as he built it.
Des Cloizeaux (1817-1897) at the Ecole Normale, and in 1876 he became professor of mineralogy at the Sorbonne, but on the death of Wurtz in 1884 he exchanged that position for the chair of organic chemistry.
Innocent was also a notable patron of learning; he encouraged Alexander of Hales to write his Summa universae theologiae, did much for the universities, notably the Sorbonne, and founded law schools at Rome and Piacenza.
He continued his studies, and after obtaining the doctor's degree at the Sorbonne, he was appointed teacher of German in the Ecole militaire at St Cyr, and shortly afterwards, professor of foreign literatures at Douai.
He holds a high place in the history of humanism by the foundation of the College de France; he did not found an actual college, but after much hesitation instituted in 1530, at the instance of Guillaume Bude (Budaeus), Lecteurs royaux, who in spite of the opposition of the Sorbonne were granted full liberty to teach Hebrew, Greek, Latin, mathematics, &c. The humanists Bude, Jacques Colin and Pierre Duchatel were the king's intimates, and Clement Marot was his favourite poet.
In 1865 he accepted the professorship of zoology at the Sorbonne, vacant through the death of L.
For his zeal in defending the papal pretensions against the council of Pisa, in a series of works which were condemned by the Sorbonne and publicly burnt by order of King Louis XII., he obtained the bishopric of Gaeta, and in 1517 Pope Leo X.
Luther's works found a good many readers in France, but were condemned (1521) by both the Sorbonne and the parlement of Paris.
The Sorbonne issued a concise series of twenty-five articles, refuting the Institutes of Calvin.
The Sorbonne also drew up a list of prohibited books, including those of Calvin, Luther and Melanchthon; and the parlement issued a decree against all printing of Protestant literature.
He was made professor of history in the College de Louis-leGrand at Paris (1813) and in the Sorbonne (1817).
In Germany, the Jesuits were eagerly welcomed as the only persons able to meet the Lutherans on equal terms. Only in France, among the countries which still were united with the Roman Church, was their advance checked, owing to political distrust of their Spanish origin, together with the hostility of the Sorbonne and the bishop of Paris.
After teaching history, in the Faculties of Arts at Caen (1871) and Nancy (1873), he was called to the Sorbonne (1883), where he was the first to occupy the chair of contemporary history.
He became vicar-general of Orleans in 1861, professor of ethics at the Sorbonne in 1862, and, on the death of Barante, a member of the French Academy in 1867, where he occupied the seat formerly held by Voltaire.
In 1858 he obtained an appointment as teacher of geography at the Sorbonne, and henceforth devoted himself to that subject.
The chief works of Damiron, of which the best are his accounts of French philosophers, are the following: - An edition of the Nouveaux melanges philosophiques de Jouffroy (1842), with a notice of the author, in which Damiron softened and omitted several expressions used by Jouffroy, which were opposed to the system of education adopted by the Sorbonne, an article which gave rise to a bitter controversy, and to a book by Pierre Leroux, De la mutilation des manuscrits de M.
PIERRE CURIE (1859-1906), French physicist, was born in Paris on the 15th of May 1859, and was educated at the Sorbonne, where he subsequently became professor of physics.
After having been employed for some time in making a catalogue of the Oriental manuscripts at the Sorbonne, he was, in 1670, attached to the French embassy at Constantinople; and in 1673 he travelled in Syria and the Levant, where he copied a great number of inscriptions, and sketched, and in some cases removed historical monuments.
Educated at the Museum of Natural History, he was successively professor of toxicology (1886) and of inorganic chemistry (1889) at the School of Pharmacy, and of general chemistry at the Sorbonne (1900).
He graduated at the Sorbonne, and spent the remainder of his life in literary work in Paris, where he died on the 27th of April 1696.
His lectures at Fontenoy have been published in two volumes entitled Lecons de psychologie appliquee a l'education, and Lecons de morale; those delivered at the Sorbonne are collected in L'Education dans l'universite (1892).
At the end of 1655 Arnauld, the chief light of Port Royal, was condemned by the Sorbonne for heretical doctrine, and it was thought important by the Jansenist and Port Royal party that steps should be taken to disabuse the popular mind.
In 1865 he obtained a fellowship in history, and in 1875 became a doctor of letters; he was appointed maitre de conference (1876) at the ecole normale superieure, succeeding Fustel de Coulanges, and then professor of modern history at the Sorbonne (1888), in the place of Henri Wallon.
Fourcroy at the Ecole Polytechnique, where subsequently (1809) he became professor of chemistry, and from 1808 to 1832 he was professor of physics at the Sorbonne, a post which he only resigned for the chair of chemistry at the Jardin des Plantes.
When however the king raised the theological argument which ended in disaster, Pole could not accept it; and, after the failure of Campeggio's mission, when the king asked him for his opinion, he excused himself on the score of inexperience, but went by Henry's order to Paris (1530) to obtain the judgment of the Sorbonne, making the condition that another should be joined with him to do the necessary business.
In 1875, resigning the office of dean but retaining the title of honorary dean, he became the first occupant of the chair of organic chemistry, which he induced the government to establish at the Sorbonne; but he had great difficulty in obtaining an adequate laboratory, and the building ultimately provided was not opened until after his death, which happened at Paris on the 10th of May 1884.
At the Sorbonne he acquired a great reputation for ability in discussion, and was known as the Doctor Illuminatus and Magister Acutus.
At the accession of Louis Philippe he was appointed professor of history at the Sorbonne and master of requests in the Conseil d'Etat.
In 1893 he was appointed to the new chair founded at the College de France for the exposition of the general history of science, and it was largely due to his inspiration that a statue to Comte was erected in the Place de la Sorbonne in 1902.
Up to this time Rabelais, despite the condemnation of the Sorbonne referred to above, had experienced nothing like persecution or difficulty.
The Sorbonne censured it and the parliament suspended the sale, taking advantage of the king's absence from Paris.
For as a matter of fact obscenity no less than impiety was charged against him by his ultra-orthodox enemies, and the obscenity no less than the supposed impiety gave them a handle against him before such bodies as the Sorbonne and the parliaments.
In 1879 he became a professor at Bordeaux and in 1889 professor of medieval history at the Sorbonne; in 1895 he became a member of the Academie des sciences morales et politiques, where he obtained the Jean Reynaud prize just before his death on the 14th of November 1908.
He made public profession of his republican principles as a schoolboy at the Lycee Charlemagne by refusing in 1867 to receive a prize at the Sorbonne from the hand of the prince imperial.
- and even denunciations of the Sorbonne, at least the custom of paying the servitia communia held its ground till the famous decree of the 4th of August during the Revolution of 1789.
The Lycee had a connexion with the university, and when Cousin left the secondary school he was "crowned" in the ancient hall of the Sorbonne for the Latin oration delivered by him there, in the general concourse of his school competitors.
The hall of the Sorbonne was crowded as the hall of no philosophical teacher in Paris had been since the days of Abelard.
1 During the last years of his life he occupied a suite of rooms in the Sorbonne, where he lived simply and unostentatiously.
In the front of the Sorbonne, below the lecture rooms of the faculty of letters, a tablet records an extract from his will, in which he bequeaths his noble and cherished library to the halls of his professorial work and triumphs.
Appointed professor of the history of the French Revolution at the Sorbonne, he formed the minds of students who in their turn have done valuable work.
He became librarian of the Sorbonne and tutor to the nephews of Jacques d'Amboise, bishop of Clermont and abbot of Cluny.
The French laity transferred to the king this quasi-divine authority, which became the political theory of the ancien rgime; and since the pope refused to submit, or to institute the new bishops, the Sorbonne was obliged to interfere.
The retractation imposed upon Cardinal de Noailles, and his replacement in the archbishopric of Paris by Vintimille, an unequivocal Molinist, excited among the populace a very violent agitation against the court of Rome and the Jesuits, the prelude to a united Fronde of the Sorbonne and the parlement.
Developed by extensive study at the Sorbonne and by frequenting the salons of the Encyclopaedists.
As a teacher Dumas was much sought after for his lectures at the Sorbonne and other institutions both on pure and applied science; and he was one of the first men in France to realize the importance of experimental laboratory teaching.
The Sorbonne condemned the book, the priests persuaded the court that it was full of the most dangerous doctrines, and the author, terrified at the storm he had raised, wrote three separate retractations; yet, in spite of his protestations of orthodoxy, he had to give up his office at the court, and the book was publicly burned by the hangman.
Paris is Talma, la Duchenois, Potier, the Sorbonne, the boulevards," and noticing that his conclusion was weaker than what had gone before, he added quickly: "There is only one Paris in the world.