The chief rivers are tide Somme, the Escaut and the Sambre, which have their sources.
The most extensive peat-workings are in the valleys of the Somme; asphalt comes from Seyssel (Am) and Puyde-Dme.
The environs of Creil (Oise) and Chteau-Landon (Seine-et-Marne) are noted for their freestone (pierre de taille), which is also abundant at Euville and Lrouville in Meuse; the production of plaster is particularly important in the environs of Paris, of kaolin of fine quality at Yrieix (1-Jaute-Vienne), of hydraulic lime in Ardche (Le Teil), of lime phosphates in the department of Somme, of marble in the departments of HauteGaronne (St Beat), Hautes-Pyrnes (Campan, Sarrancolin), Isre and Pas-de-Calais, and of cement in Pas-de-Calais (vicinity of Boulogne) and Isre (Grenoble).
Flax, Hemp, Jute, &c.The preparation and spinning of these materials and the manufacture of nets and rope, together with the weaving of linen and other fabrics, give occupation to 112,000 persons chiefly in the departments of Nord (Lille, Armentires, Dunkirk), Somme (Amiens) and Maine-et-Loire (Angers, Cholet).
Sugar.The manufacture of sugar is carried on in the departments of the north, in which the cultivation of beetroot is general Aisne, Nord, Somme, Pas-de-Calais, Oise and Seine-et-Marne, the three first being by far the largest producers.
Aisne, Pas-de-Calais and Somme rank next to Nord.
Canal de Ia Somme 97
The Nord, which serves the rich mining, industrial and farming districts of Nord, Pas-de-Calais, Aisne and Somme, connecting with the Belgian railways at several points.
SOMME Amiens .
In 1814 he attached himself to the Bourbons, and under the Restoration was appointed prefect of Somme, deputy for Seine-Inferieure and finally deputy for Seine-et-Oise, in which capacity he was a leader of the Liberal opposition.
It is probable that his fault was one of negligence only; but, distrusting the impartiality of the judges of the Somme, he fled to Paris, and on the 23rd of August 1793 was condemned in contumaciam to twenty years' imprisonment.
In the partition of his father's realm in 511 he received as his share the town of Paris, and the country to the north as far as the river Somme, and to the west as far as the English Channel, with the Armorican peninsula.
By driving eastward from Arras, covered on the left by the rivers Scarpe and Sensee, the First Army would endeavour to turn the enemy's positions on the Somme battlefield and cut his system of railway communications which ran south-westward across their front."
- The results of the fighting on the line of the upper Somme and the Tortille at the end of Aug.
France is rich in mineral phosphates, the chief deposits being the departments of the Pas-de-Calais, Somme, Aisne, Oise in and Meuse, in the north-east, and another group in the departments of Lot, Tarn-et-Garonne and Aveyron, in the south-west: phosphates occur also in the Pyrenees.
DOULLENS, a town of northern France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Somme, on the Authie, 27 m.
In the preface Legendre remarks: " La methode qui me paroit la plus simple et la plus generale consiste a rendre minimum la somme des quarres des erreurs, .
His last years were spent in complete retirement in France (he had been allowed to return in 1857), and he died at Prouzel (Somme) on the 11th of September 1865.
It communicates with the canal system of Flanders and with the Somme canal by way of the St Quentin canal (Crozat branch) which unites with it at Chauny.
Charles, on his part, solemnly, craved pardon for the murder of John the Fearless through the mouth of the dean of the church in Paris, and handed over to the duke the counties of Macon, Auxerre, Bar-sur-Seine and Ponthieu, and the towns on and near the Somme (Roye, Montdidier, Peronne), reserving the option of redeeming the Somme towns for 400,000 gold crowns.
During the journey Louis won over the seigneurs of Croy, the principal counsellors of the duke of Burgundy, and persuaded Philip to allow him to redeem the Somme towns for the sum stipulated in the treaty of Arras.
AMIENS, a city of northern France, capital of the department of Somme, on the left bank of the Somme, 81 m.
The older and more picturesque quarter is situated directly on the Somme; its narrow and irregular streets are intersected by the eleven arms of the river and it is skirted on the north by the canal derived therefrom.
Market gardens, known as hortillonnages, intersected by small canals derived from the Somme and Avre, cover a considerable area to the north-east of Amiens; and the city has trade in vegetables, as well as in grain, sugar, wool, oil-seeds and the duck-pasties and macaroons for which it is renowned.
From this centre, the Scheldt, the viking raids extended on either side; sometimes eastward as far as the Rhine, and so into Germany proper, the territory assigned to Louis the German; at other times westward to the Somme, and thus into the territory of Charles the Bald, the future kingdom of France.
The king yielded at all points; gave up the "Somme towns" in Picardy, for which he had paid 200,000 gold crowns, to Philip the Good, thus bringing the Burgundians close to Paris and to Normandy.
Charles's ally, Edward IV., invaded France in June 1475, but Louis bought him off on the 29th of August at Picquigny - where the two sovereigns met on a bridge over the Somme, with a strong grille between them, Edward receiving 75,000 crowns, and a promise of a pension of 50,000 crowns annually.
Under the Second Empire, he helped to found a Liberal journal, Le Progres de la Somme, and in July 1871 was sent by the department of the Somme to the National Assembly, where he took his place on the extreme left.
ABBEVILLE, a town of northern France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Somme, on the Somme, 12 m.
The readiness with which the young Mytilus attaches itself to wicker-work is made the means of artificially cultivating and securing these molluscs for the market both in the Bay of Kiel in North Germany and at the mouth of the Somme and other spots on the coast of France.
But after crossing the Somme he halted at Crecy, near Abbeville, and offered battle to the pursuing enemy.
He was sent as a representative on missions into the departments of the Somme and Pas-de-Calais, where he showed great severity in dealing with offences against revolutionaries (8th Brumaire, year II.
He was tried before the criminal tribunal of the Somme, condemned to death for abuse of his power during his mission, and executed at Amiens on the 24th Vendemiaire in the year IV.
JEAN CHARLES ATHANASE PELTIER (1785-1845), French physicist, was born at Ham (Somme) on the 22nd of February 1785.
Somme and the Oise.
879), count of Flanders, turned the country between the Scheldt, the Somme and the sea into another feudal principality.
Had passed five years of voluntary exile at the court of the chief of the House of Burgundy, Philip the Good; and he was able to appreciate the territorial power of a duchy which extended from the Zuyder Zee to the Somme, with all tise country between the Sane and the Loire in addition, and its geographical position as a commercial intermediary between Germany, England and France.
The repurchase in 1463 of the towns of the Somme (to which Philip the Good, now grown old and engaged in a quarrel with his son, the count of Charolais, had felt obliged to consent on consideration of receiving four hundred thousand gold crowns), and the intrigues of Louis XI.
The duke of Brittany, Francis II., was defeated; Charles the Bold, having failed at Beauvais in his attempt to recapture the towns of the Somme which had been.
Although he was on familiar terms with the dauphin (afterwards Louis XI.), when the latter was a refugee at the court of Burgundy, he could not but view with chagrin the repurchase by the king of France of the towns on the Somme, which had been temporarily ceded to Philip the Good by the treaty of Arras; and when his father's failing health enabled him to take into his hands the reins of government (which Philip abandoned to him completely by an act of the 12th of April 1465), he entered upon his lifelong struggle against Louis XI., and became one of the principal leaders of the League of the Public Weal.
He succeeded, however, in forcing upon Louis the treaty of Conflans (1466), by which the king restored to him the towns on the Somme, and promised him the hand of his infant daughter Catherine, with Champagne as dowry.
At the expiry of the one year's truce which followed the treaty of Peronne, the king accused Charles of treason, cited him to appear before the parlement, and seized some of the towns on the Somme (1471).
In World War I, in the Battle of the Somme, were over a million casualties, and the action advanced the Allied line just seven miles, or about two deaths for every inch of ground.