Congo for maternity cases and cases of curable Ubangi-Chad illness; (2) the hospice, where the aged Madagascar poor, cases of incurable malady, orphans, Nossi-be Island foundlings and other children without Ste Marie Island means of support, and in some cases Comoro Islands lunatics, are received; (3) the bureau de Somali Coast bien-faisance, charged with the provision 9f Reunion out-door relief (secours a domicile) in money st Paul 1 or in kind, to the aged poor or those who, Amsterdam though capable of working, are prevented Kerguelen.
SOMALILAND, a country of East Africa, so named from its Somali inhabitants.
Somali also inhabit the coast region and considerable areas inland, as far south as the Tana river.
The 40 0 east may be taken as the western limit of Somali settlements.
Among them are the lion (Somali name libah) and elephant, though these have been to a large extent driven from the northern coast districts;.
The antelopes include the beisa oryx, fairly common and widely distributed; the greater and lesser kudu (the greater kudu is not found on the Ogaden plateau); the Somali hartebeest (Bubalis Swaynei), found only in the Haud and Ogo districts; waterbuck, rare except along the Webi Shebeli and the Nogal; the dol or Somali bushbuck; the dibatag or Clarke's gazelle; the giraffe-like gerenuk or Waller's gazelle, very common; the aoul or Soemmering's gazelle, widely distributed; the dero (Gazella Speki); and the small dikdik or sakaro antelope, found in almost every thicket.
The Somali belong to the Eastern (Ethiopic) Hamitic family of tribes, of which the other chief members are the neighbouring Galla and Afar, the Abyssinian Agau and the Beja tribes between the Nubian Nile and the Red Sea.
The Somali, however, declare themselves to be of Arab origin, alleging their progenitor to have been a certain Sherif Ishak b.
But these intruders seem to have been successively absorbed in the Somali stock; and the Arabs never succeeded in establishing permanent communities in this region.
The present Somali peoples are possessed of no general type.
There are four classes in Somaliland: (I) nomads who breed ponies, sheep, cattle and camels, live entirely on milk and meat, and follow the rains in search of grass; (2) settled Somali, comparatively few, living in or near the coasts; (3) outcast races, not organized in tribes but living scattered all over Somaliland; they are hunters, workers in iron and leather, and the chief collectors of gum and resin; (4) traders.
The Somali are a fighting race and all go armed with spear, shield and short sword (and guns when they can get them).
Women hold a degraded position among the Somali (wives being often looted with sheep), doing most of the hard work.
The Somali love display; they are inordinately vain and avaricious; but they make loyal and trustworthy soldiers and are generally bright and intelligent.
The Somali have very little political or social cohesion, and are divided into a multiplicity of rers or fakidas (tribes, clans).
All are Sunnites, and, although still speaking their Somali national tongue, betray a large infusion of Arab blood in their oval face, somewhat light skin, and remarkably regular features.
The Midgan, who are of slightly shorter stature than the average Somali, are the most numerous of these peoples.
That .the country was subsequently occupied by a more highly civilized people than the Somali of to-day is evidenced by the ruins which are found in various districts.
The occupation of Aden by the British in 183 9 proved the starting-point in the opening up of the country, Aden being the chief port with which the Somali of the opposite coast traded.
The expedition was attacked by Somali near Berbera, both Bur-, ton and Speke being wounded, and another officer, Lieut.
The Haud (only the northern part of which is British territory - the rest is Abyssinian) consists partly of thorn jungle, the haud of the Somali, partly of rolling grass plains, called ban, and partly of semi-desert country called aror.
The Somali have also large herds of cattle - oxen, sheep and goats.
The state was greatly harassed by Galla invaders in the 17th century, and broke up into a number of petty independent emirates and sultanates under Somali chiefs.
The British connexion with the Somali coast dates from the early years of the 19th century; the first treaty between the British and Somali having been signed in 18 2 7 after the plundering of an English ship by the Habr-Wal.
From this time onward the Indian government exercised considerable influence on the Somali coast, but British authority was not definitely established, and in 18J4 Richard Burton's expedition was attacked at Berbera.
During 1884, 1885, 1886 treaties guaranteeing British protection were concluded with various Somali tribes and in 1888 the limits of the British and French spheres were defined, all claims to British jurisdiction in the Gulf of Tajura and the islands of Musha and Bab being abandoned.
This mullah, Mahommed bin Abdullah by name, had made several pilgrimages to Mecca, where he had attached himself to a sect which enjoined strict observance of the tenets of Islam and placed an interdiction on the use of the leaves of the kat plant - much sought after by the coast Arabs and Somali for their stimulating and intoxicating properties.
Swayne raised a Somali levy of 1500 men, and in May 1901 occupied Burao.
In December 1901 the mullah was, however, once more raiding in the neighbourhood of Burao, and in May Wars with 1902 Colonel Swayne led another expedition against the Mullah him, the Somali levies being strengthened by the 2nd Mahomme dKing's African Rifles, consisting of Yaos from Nyasa- Abdullah.
French interest in the Somali and Danakil coasts dates from the days of the Second Empire.
Between 1883 and 1887 treaties with Somali sultans gave France possession of the whole of the Gulf of Tajura.
The headland is known to the Somali as Girdif or Yardaf - whence in all probability comes the European form Guardafui.
In the coast towns of the eastern seaboard there are Swahili, Arab and Indian settlements, and tribes, such as the Amaran, of mixed Arab and Somali blood.
The Somali coast, as has been seen, early fell under Moslem influence.
Abdullah established himself under Italian surveillance, and by an agreement dated the 5th of March 1905, peace was declared between the mullah, the Italians, British and Abyssinians, and all other Somali tribes.
After the treaty of Adis Adowa, recognizing the independence of Abyssinia, had been concluded in 1896, negotiations were opened for defining the Italian-Abyssinian frontier in the Somali regions.
De Larajasse and C. de Sampont, A Practical Grammar of the Somali Language (London, 1897); E.
De Larajasse, Somali-English and English-Somali Dictionary (London, 1897).
Across the Galla and Somali countries to the sea.
Kinnamon), the Cinnamomum zeylanicum of the Somali country, but cultivated largely in Ceylon, where also it runs wild, and in Java; costus (Heb.
Bhau-Dajiana of the Somali country, and of B.
Tar), the gum-resin of the Balsamodendron Myrrha of the Somali country and opposite shore of Arabia; onycha (Heb.
Punt is identified with the Somali country, now known to be the native country of the trees that yield the bulk of the frankincense of commerce.
The temple is now in ruins, but the entire series of gorgeous pictures recording the expedition to "the balsam land of Punt," from its leaving to its returning to Thebes, still remains intact and undefaced.4 These are the only authenticated instances of the export of incense trees from the Somali country until Colonel Playfair, then political agent at Aden, in 1862-1864, collected and sent to Bombay the specimens from which Sir George Birdwood prepared his descriptions of them for the Linnean Society in 1868.
Exiles; Ethiopic falas, a stranger), or "Jews of Abyssinia," a tribe of Hamitic stock, akin to Galla, Somali and Beja, though they profess the Jewish religion.
For this reason the up-welling coastal water is coldest close to the shore, and hence it only appears on the Somali coast during the south-west monsoon.
He was not an Arab but, probably, of Somali origin.
Playfairii, when shaken with water forms a slight but permanent lather, and on this account is used by the Somali women for cleansing their hair, and by the men to whiten their shields; it is known as meena h¢rma in Bombay, and was formerly used there for the expulsion of the guinea-worm.
They have from very early times been resorted to as a means of staining the hair of a dark colour, and they are the base of the tattooing dye of the Somali women.3 The gall-making Hymenoptera include, besides the Cynipidae proper, certain species of the genus Eurytoma (Isosoma, Walsh) and family Chalcididae, 'e.g.'
GERENUK, the Somali name of a long-necked aberrant gazelle, commonly known as Waller's gazelle (Lithocranius walleri), and ranging from Somaliland to Kilimanjaro.
Their usual pace is an awkward trot, not unlike that of a camel; and they seldom break into a gallop. The Somali form has been separated as L.
Westward, are connected by a good carriage-road with the Somali settlement of Mala about midway.
The depth of water at the main entrance is 41 to 5 fathoms and in the western bay 3 to 4 fathoms. For lack of docks and quayage, large vessels lie off Steamer Point and all cargo is handled by means of lighters, the labour being either Somali or Arab.
The bulk of the inhabitants are Somali, who have abandoned a nomadic life and adopted largely the ways of the Arab and Indian traders.
Eastward, roads led through the Arabian mountains to the Red Sea, whence ships made voyages to the incense-bearing land of Puoni (Punt) on the Somali coast of Africa, rich also in gold and ivory.
The famous sculptures of the great expedition by water to Puoni, the land of incense on the Somali coast, are also here, with many others.