The calorimeter used for solutions is usually cylindrical, and made of glass or a metal which is not, attacked by the reacting substances.
As to the detergent action of a soap, Berzelius held that it was due to the free alkali liberated with water; but it is difficult to see why a solution which has just thrown off most of its fatty acids should be disposed to take up even a glyceride, and, moreover, on this theory, weak cold solutions, in which the hydrolysis is considerable, should be the best cleansers, whilst experience points to the use of hot concentrated solutions.
I don't mean that in a motivational poster kind of way but in a literal sense: Failures (and what we learn from them) will help build the energy solutions for our future.
In discussing nutrition, not only is there little agreement on the nature of the solutions, there is often disagreement on the nature of the problems.
The pentathionates give a brown colour on the addition of ammoniacal solutions of silver nitrate and ultimately a black precipitate.
In 1887 a committee reported that the coupler question was the " knottiest mechanical problem that had ever been presented to the railroad," and over 4000 attempted solutions were on record in the United States Patent Office.
Known quantities of the solutions are taken, and the temperature of each is accurately measured before mixing, the solutions having been allowed as far as possible to adjust themselves to the same temperature.
A modern branch of mathematics having achieved the art of dealing with the infinitely small can now yield solutions in other more complex problems of motion which used to appear insoluble.
I don't have solutions to make this work.
The procedure consists in most cases in spraying the affected plants with poisonous solutions or emulsions, or in (lusting them with fungicidal or insecticidal powders, or applying the fumes of lethal gases.
It is only, however, when we deal with comparatively concentrated solutions that the heat-effect of diluting the solutions is at all great, the heat-change on diluting an already dilute solution being for most practical purposes negligible.
As a very great number of important chemical actions take place on mixing solutions, the method for such cases has been thoroughly studied.
Its property of absorbing large proportions of water, up to 80%, and yet present the appearance of a hard solid body, makes the material a basis for the hydrated soaps, smooth and marbled, in which water, sulphate of soda, and other alkaline solutions, soluble silicates, fuller's earth, starch, &c. play an important and bulky part.
When the ancients could not find these solutions, it was not for a lack of intelligence but for a lack of technology.
This hydroxide is soluble in well cooled acids, forming solutions which contain cobaltic salts, one of the most stable of which is the acetate.
They are precipitated from their alkaline solutions as cobalt sulphide by sulphuretted hydrogen, but this precipitation is prevented by the presence of citric and tartaric acids; similarly the presence of ammonium salts hinders their precipitation by caustic alkalis.
The hexammine salts are formed by the oxidizing action of air on dilute ammoniacal solutions of cobaltous salts, especially in presence of a large excess of ammonium chloride.
They are formed by the action of nitrous fumes on ammoniacal solutions of cobaltous salts, or purpureo-salts, or by the mutual reaction of chlorpurpureosalts and alkaline nitrites.
The pentammine roseo-salts can be obtained from the action of concentrated acids, in the cold, on airoxidized solutions of cobaltous salts.
In 1894 and 1895, Fischer, in a remarkable series of papers on the influence of molecular structure upon the action of the enzyme, showed that various species of yeast behave very differently towards solutions of sugars.
The freshly-expressed yeast juice causes concentrated solutions of cane sugar, glucose, laevulose and maltose to ferment with the production of alcohol and carbon dioxide, but not milk-sugar and mannose.
The first class include such changes as the alcoholic fermentation of sugar solutions, the acetic acid fermentation of alcohol, the lactic acid fermentation of milk sugar, and the putrefaction of animal and vegetable nitrogenous matter.
It is appreciably soluble in water, and also in solutions of the caustic alkalis and alkaline sulphides.
It is frequently used as a reducing agent: in acid solutions it reduces ferric to ferrous salts, arsenates to arsenites, permanganates to manganous salts, &c., whilst in alkaline solution it converts many organic nitro compounds into the corresponding amino derivatives.
Soc., 1891, p. 771) by electrolysing solutions of the alkaline bisulphates.
Hess now observed that in the process of mixing such neutral solutions no thermal effect was produced - that is, neutral salts in aqueous solution could apparently interchange their radicals without evolution or absorption of heat.
(3) The effect of change of volume against external pressure (due to production or consumption of mechanical energy) may be neglected in the case of solids, liquids or solutions, but must usually be taken into account when gases are dealt with.
When the solutions employed are dilute, no water is placed in the calorimeter, the temperature-change of the solutions themselves being used to estimate the thermal effect brought about by mixing them.
The change of temperature of the solutions after the mixing has taken place is then observed with the usual precautions.
He therefore abstained from determining for each case the specific heats of the solutions he employed, and contented himself with the above approximation.
Almost all soda soaps are precipitated from their watery solutions by the addition of a sufficiency of common salt.
Acids have practically no action on the metal, but it is soluble in solutions of the alkaline hypochlorites.
The metals may be arranged in a series according to their power of displacing one another in salt solutions, thus Cs, Rb, K, Na, Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Cd, Tl, Fe, Co, Ni, Sn, Pb, (H), Sb, Bi, As, Cu, Hg, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au.
Many technological problems I don't address in this book, but I believe technology will provide solutions for those also.
There were two possible solutions of the difficulty.
The powder is soluble in alcohol and strong solutions of alkalis, such as ammonia.
P. 299), or by the addition of a concentrated solution of potassium cyanide to one of copper sulphate, the mixed solutions being then heated.
In 1826 he described the prismatically-coloured films of metal, known as Nobili's' rings, deposited electrolytically from solutions of lead and other salts when the anode is a polished iron plate and the cathode is a fine wire placed vertically above it.
Solutions of yttria salts in their behaviour to reagents are not unlike those of zirconia.
The derrick crane introduces a problem for which many solutions have been sought, that of preventing the load from being lifted or lowered when the jib is pivoted up or down to alter the radius.
Davy on the decomposition of the solutions of salts by the voltaic current were turned to account in the water voltameter telegraph of Sdmmering and the modification of it proposed by Schweigger, and in a similar method proposed by Coxe, in which a solution of salts was substituted for water.
Cadmium sulphide, CdS, occurs naturally as greenockite (q.v.), and can be artificially prepared by passing sulphuretted hydrogen through acid solutions of soluble cadmium salts, when it is precipitated as a pale yellow amorphous solid.
Normal cadmium carbonates are unknown, a white precipitate of variable composition being obtained on the addition of solutions of the alkaline carbonates to soluble cadmium salts.
The perchloride of mercury is another very powerful antiseptic used in solutions of strength I in 2000, I in 1000 and 1 in 500.
The molybdates may be recognized by the fact that they give a white precipitate on the addition of hydrochloric or nitric acids to their solutions, and that with reducing agents (zinc and sulphuric acid) they give generally a blue coloration which turns to a green and finally to a brown colour.
This serves a double purpose, bringing up from the soil continually a supply of the soluble mineral matters necessary for their metabolic processes, \vhich only enter the plant in solutions of extreme dilution, and at the same time keeping the plant cool by the process of evaporation.
It is also readily soluble in solutions of the caustic alkalis, slightly soluble in aqueous ammonia solution, and almost insoluble in sodium carbonate solution.
It sublimes in thin plates of a dark colour and metallic lustre, and is soluble in solutions of the caustic alkalis.
The germanium salts are most readily recognized by the white precipitate of the disulphide, formed in acid solutions, on passing sulphuretted hydrogen.
Solutions of persulphates in the cold give no precipitate with barium chloride, but when warmed barium sulphate is precipitated with simultaneous liberation of chlorine: K 2 S 2 0 8 + BaC1 2 = BaSO 4 + K 2 SO 4 + C1 2.
Zinc with solutions of copper salts), the thermal effect is practically independent of the nature of the acid radical in the salt employed.
In dealing, therefore, with dilute solutions, it is only necessary to state that the solutions are dilute, the exact degree of dilution being unimportant.
Four out of the five essays are elaborate and powerful solutions of perplexing technical problems - the distribution of the gains of international commerce, the influence of consumption on production, the definition of productive and unproductive labour, the precise relations between profits and wages.
All other soaps result from the combination' of fatty oils and fat with potash or soda solutions under conditions which favour saponification.
Expect solutions in the future to come from countries you couldn't find on a map today.
However, I don't think finding these solutions means an end to all our troubles.
This precipitate is insoluble in cold dilute acids, in ammonium sulphide, and in solutions of the caustic alkalis," a behaviour which distinguishes it from the yellow sulphides of arsenic and tin.
These are the kinds of solutions that will change the world.
For the first time in his life, he wondered what solutions other than execution would work.