In fact, the molten iron is heated so far above its melting point that, instead of being run at once into pigs as is usual, it may, without solidifying, be carried even several miles in large clay-lined ladles to the mill where it is to be converted into steel.
His gaze went to her neck, his resolve solidifying at the sight of her exhausted features and red cheek.
Materials like tar and pitch are sometimes employed as a matrix; they are used hot and without water, the solidifying action being due to cooling and to evaporation of the mineral oils contained in them.
The reason is that the particles of temper graphite which are thus formed within the solid casting in its long annealing are so finely divided that they do not break up the continuity of the mass in a very harmful way; whereas in grey cast iron both the eutectic graphite formed in solidifying, and also the primary graphite which, in case the metal is hypereutectic, forms in cooling through region 3 of fig.
The essential difficulty has been that none of them could subdivide the rapidly solidifying charge into the small balls which the workman dexterously forms by hand, and that if the charge is not thus subdivided but drawn as a single ball, the cinder cannot be squeezed out of it thoroughly enough.
The iron for a statuette must first of all be very fluid, so that it will run into every crevice in its mould, and it must expand in solidifying, so that it shall reproduce accurately every detail of that mould.
Of these several qualities which cast iron may have, fluidity is given by keeping the sulphur-content low and phosphoruscontent high; and this latter element must be kept low if shock is to be resisted; but strength, hardness, endurance of shock, density and expansion in solidifying are controlled essentially by the distribution of the carbon between the states of graphite and cementite, and this in turn is controlled chiefly by the proportion of silicon, manganese and sulphur present, and in many cases by the rate of cooling.
An ingot should always stand upright while solidifying, so that the unsound region due to the pipe may readily be cut off, leaving the rest of the ingot solid.
If the ingot lay on its side while solidifying, the pipe would occur as shown in fig.
Hence in the act of solidifying it expels any excess of gas which it has dissolved while liquid, and this gas becomes entangled in the freezing mass, causing gas bubbles or blowholes, as at A and B in fig.
- The solidification of an ingot of steel takes place gradually from without inwards, and each layer in solidifying tends to expel into the still molten interior the impurities which it contains, especially the carbon, phosphorus, and sulphur, which by this process are in part concentrated or segregated in the last-freezing part of the ingot.
In specific gravity it ranges between 0.9112 and 0.9117 in the raw state, and from 0.9127 to 0.9136 when refined; the solidifying point is from - 4° to - 6° C.
The flood waters of the Chambezi and other streams, which deposit large quantities of alluvium, are gradually solidifying the swamp, while the Luapula is believed to be, though very slowly, draining Bangweulu.
The great fluidity of bronze when melted, the slightness of its contraction on solidifying, together with its density and hardness, make it especially suitable for casting, and allow of its taking the impress of the mould with extreme sharpness and delicacy.
To mention examples, blood serum solidified at a suitable temperature is a highly suitable medium, and various media are made with extract of meat as a basis, with the addition of gelatine or agar as solidifying agents and of non-coagulable proteids (commercial " pep tone ") to make up for proteids lost by coagulation in the preparation.
It is a colourless gas 42 times heavier than air, and liquefies at 15° under 40 atmospheres, solidifying when the pressure is diminished.
Oils and fats have no distinct melting or solidifying point.
This is not only due to the fact that they are mixtures of several glycerides, but also that even pure glycerides, such as tristearin, exhibit two melting-points, a so-called "double melting-point," the triglycerides melting at a certain temperature, then solidifying at a higher temperature to melt again on further heating.