Of Sokoto and 500 N.E.
The conditions of appointment of the emirs are fully laid down in the terms accepted at Sokoto on the close of the Sokoto-Kano campaign of 1903.
The best known are Koroko, Kong and Bona, entrepots for the trade of the middle Niger, and Bontuku, on the caravan route to Sokoto and the meeting-place of the merchants from Kong and Timbuktu engaged in the kola-nut trade with Ashanti and the Gold Coast.
Tributaries of the Niger traverse the western portion of the country, the most noteworthy being the Gulbin Kebbi or Sokoto river and the Kaduna, which flows through a valley not more than 500 ft.
Of Kano is Sokoto, on a tributary of the Niger of the same name.
Sokoto is the religious and political centre of the Fula.
Of Sokoto; Bida, 25 m.
Of Sokoto, is an important entrepot for trade from the hinterland of the Guinea coast and the Hausa states.
The important Mahommedan states of Sokoto, Gando, Kano and Katsena remained independent.
The emir of Sokoto held the position of religious as well as political head of all the lesser states of Northern Nigeria, and in response to friendly overtures on the part of the British administration had declared that between Sokoto and Great Britain there could be nothing but war.
Every attempt was made to settle the question at issue by conciliatory methods, but these having failed, a campaign against Kano and Sokoto was entered upon in January 1903.
Sokoto submitted after a battle which took place on the 17th of May.
For administrative purposes the territories were at first divided into seventeen provinces: Sokoto, Gando, Kano, Katsena, Bornu East, Bornu West, Zaria, Bauchi, Borgu, Kontagora, Nassarawa, Muri, Yola, Bassa, Kabba, Illorin, Nupe.
Of these Sokoto and Gando, Kano and Katsena, Bornu East and Bornu West have been carried a step further in organization and now form three double provinces, each under the charge of a first-class resident.
Two years later a saint of Sokoto, Abu Naal Muzil el Muhan, collected many followers and for a time threatened the khalifas power, but the revolt gradually died out.
East of that river Sokoto and its tributary emirates are ruled by Fula princes, subject to the control of the British Nigerian administration.
Originally herdsmen in the western and central Sudan, they extended their sway east of the Niger, under the leadership of Othman Dan Fodio, during the early years of the 19th century, and having subdued the Hausa states, founded the empire of Sokoto with the vassal emirates of Kano, Gando, Nupe, Adamawa, &c.
Brackenbury, A Short Vocabulary of the Fulani Language (Zungeru, 1907); the articles Nigeria and Sokoto and authorities there cited.
The town of Illorin was founded, towards the close of the 18th century, by Yoruba, and rose to be the capital of one of the Yoruba kingdoms. About 1825 the kingdom, which had come under Mahommedan influence, ceased its connexion with the Yoruba states and became an emirate of the Sokoto empire.
Mahommedanism was partly adopted by the upper classes in the 18th century, if not earlier, and the son of a Mahommedan native ruler, educated at Sokoto, accepted the flag of Dan Fodio and conquered the country for the Fula.
The Kano-Sokoto campaign in 1903 rendered necessary a temporary withdrawal of the British resident from Bauchi, and comparatively little progress was made until the following year.
It was at Burmi in this district that the last stand was made by the religious following of the defeated sultan of Sokoto, and here the sultan was finally overthrown and killed in July 1903.
After the desert region is past the Niger receives the waters of the river Sokoto, a considerable stream flowing from the northeast.
Flegel ascended the Niger to Gomba opposite the confluence of the Sokoto river with the main stream, and about 70 m.
SOKOTO, an important Fula state of west central Sudan, now a province of the British protectorate of Nigeria.
The sultan of Sokoto throughout the 19th century exercised an overlordship over the Hausa states extending east from the Niger to Bornu and southward to the Benue and Adamawa.
These states and Sokoto itself, known variously as the Sokoto or Fula empire and Hausaland, came (c. 1900-1903) under direct British control, but the native governments are maintained.
The province of Sokoto occupies the north-west corner of the British protectorate, and is bounded west and north by French territory.
Running through it in a south-westerly direction is the Gublin Kebbi or Sokoto river, which joins the Niger in 112° N.
The Sokoto or Fula empire was founded at the beginning of the 19th century.
This sheik established himself at Sokoto, and with other titles assumed that of Sarikin Muslimin (king of the Mahommedans).
On the death of Fodio (c. 1819) the empire was divided between a son and a brother, the son, famous under the name of Sultan Bello, ruling at Sokoto, the brother at Gando.
Hugh Clapperton, an Englishman, was at Sokoto in 1823 and again in 1827, dying there on the 13th of April of that year.
At Sokoto the sultanship continued in the hands of Fodio's descendants, and the reigning sultan concluded in 1885 a treaty with the Royal Niger Company (then called the National African Company) which gave to the company certain rights of sovereignty throughout his dominions.
The northern states declined to fulfil the conditions of the treaties negotiated with the Niger Company or to submit to the abolition of the slave trade, and in 1902 Sokoto and Kano openly defied the British power.
Kano was taken in February 1903, and Sokoto after some resistance made formal submission on the 22nd of March following.
The emir of Sokoto took an oath of allegiance to the British Crown and Sokoto became a British province, to which at a later period Gando was added as a subprovince - thus making of Sokoto one of the double provinces of the protectorate.
The dominions of the emir of Sokoto have suffered some diminutions by reason of British agreements with France relating to the common frontier of the two European powers in the western Sudan.
Like the emir of Kano the new emir of Sokoto worked most loyally with the British administration.
A British resident of the first class has been placed at Sokoto and assistant residents at other centres.
The emir of Gando, treated on the same terms as the emirs of Kano and Sokoto, proved less loyal to his oath of allegiance and had to be deposed.
Another emir was installed in his place and in the whole double province of Sokoto-Gando prosperity has been general.
In 1906 a rising attributed to religious fanaticism occurred near Sokoto in which unfortunately three white officers lost their lives.
The leader was condemned to death in the emir's court and executed in the market place of Sokoto, and the incident was chiefly interesting for the display of loyalty to the British administration which it evoked on all sides from the native rulers.