The belief of Socrates is uncertain.
Socrates was charged with " not believing in the gods the city believes in."
Like another Socrates, he taught them to know themselves, repressing vanity, encouraging the despondent, and attaching all alike by his unobtrusive sympathy.
The style is better than that of Socrates and Sozomen, as Photius has remarked, but as a contribution to history the work is inferior in importance.
The strain of the next three years' continuous work undermined his health and his eyesight, and he was compelled to retire from his professorship. During these years he had published works on Plato and Socrates and a history of philosophy (1875); but after his retirement he further developed his philosophical position, a speculative eclecticism through which he endeavoured to reconcile metaphysical idealism with the naturalistic and mechanical standpoint of science.
Greek philosophy for our purpose begins with Socrates, who formulated the Design Argument.
The new method of definition which Socrates applied to problems of human conduct was extended by Plato to the whole universe of the knowable.
It is impossible to trace directly the influence exercised upon him by the great men of his time, but one cannot fail to connect his emancipation of medicine from superstition with the widespread power exercised over Greek life and thought by the living work of Socrates, Plato, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Herodotus and Thucydides.
Also Zeller, Socrates and the Socratic Schools; Dyeck, De Megaricorum doctrines (Bonn, 1827); Mallet, Histoire de l'ecole de Megare (Paris, 1845); Ritter, Ober die Philosophie der r meg.
As monk in the neighbouring monastery of Euprepius, and afterwards as presbyter, he became celebrated in the diocese for his asceticism, his orthodoxy and his eloquence; hostile critics, such as the church historian Socrates, allege that his arrogance and vanity were hardly less conspicuous.
The Novatians and the Quartodecima.ns were the next objects of his orthodox zeal - a zeal which in the case of the former at least was reinforced, according to Socrates, by his envy of their bishop; and it led to serious and fatal disturbances at Sardis and Miletus.
In the preface to a German translation of Bonnet's essay on Christian Evidences, Lavater publicly challenged Mendelssohn to refute Bonnet or if he could not then to "do what wisdom, the love of truth and honesty must bid him, what a Socrates would have done if he had read the book and found it unanswerable."
DINARCHUS, last of the "ten" Attic orators, son of Sostratus (or, according to Suidas, Socrates), born at Corinth about 361 B.C. He settled at Athens early in life, and when not more than twenty-five was already active as a writer of speeches for the law courts.
Its author made use of Eusebius's Life of Constantine, and of the histories of Rufinus, Socrates and Sozomen, and probably of Philostorgius as well.
The church history has been published frequently in connexion with the histories of Socrates, Sozomen and others, e.g.
From Socrates, in Xenophon's Memorabilia, downwards, the argument is tolerably common; it is notable in Cicero; in the modern discussion it dominates the 18th-century mode of thought, is confidently appealed to though not worked out by Butler, and is fully stated by Paley.
Seeley in Ecce Homo) to call Socrates the " creator of science."
At Rome, for instance, the whole period of fasting was but three weeks, according to the historian Socrates (Hist.
The importance of these principles lies not only in their intrinsic value as an ethical system, but also in the fact that they form the link between Socrates and the Stoics, between the essentially Greek philosophy of the 4th century B.C. and a system of thought which has exercised a profound and far-reaching influence on medieval and modern ethics.
From the time of Socrates in unbroken succession up to the reign of Hadrian, the school was represented by men of strong individuality.
Antisthenes was a pupil of Socrates, from whom he imbibed the fundamental ethical precept that virtue, not pleasure, is the end of existence.
"Virtue," says Socrates, "is knowledge": in the ultimate harmony of morality with reason is to be found the only true existence of man.
The historian Socrates (Hist.
However this may be, he came under the influence of Socrates, and became a devoted pupil.
So eager was he to hear the words of Socrates that he used to walk daily from Peiraeus to Athens, and persuaded his friends to accompany him.
When the servile Athenians, feigning to share the emperor's displeasure with the sophist, pulled down a statue which they had erected to him, Favorinus remarked that if only Socrates also had had a statue at Athens, he might have been spared the hemlock.
The ecclesiastical historian Socrates (Hist.
The decision of the council was unanimous that Easter was to be kept on Sunday, and on the same Sunday throughout the world, and "that none should hereafter follow the blindness of the Jews" (Socrates, H.E.
Some of the rock chambers originally intended for tombs were afterwards converted, perhaps under pressure of necessity, into habitations, as in the case of the so-called " Prison of Socrates," which consists of three chambers horizontally excavated and a small round apartment of the " beehive " type.
According to Socrates he attended the synod of Seleucia in the autumn of 359, and then subscribed the Acacian formula.
He was taught first by his father Spintharus, a pupil of Socrates, and later by the Pythagoreans, Lamprus of Erythrae and Xenophilus, from whom he learned the theory of music. Finally he studied under Aristotle at Athens, and was deeply annoyed, it is said, when Theophrastus was appointed head of the school on Aristotle's death.
This thing, remaining essentially the same, receives in the same way other forms which constitute Plato and the other individuals of the species man; and, with the exception of those forms which mould that matter into the individual Socrates, there is nothing in Socrates that is not the same at the same time under the forms of Plato.
But if homo is wholly and essentially present in Socrates, then it is, as it were, absorbed in Socrates; where Socrates is not, it cannot be, consequently not in Plato and the other individua hominis.
As animal becomes homo by the addition of humanitas, so homo becomes Socrates by the addition of the qualities signified by Socratitas.
34), Cicero states that he was contemptuous of other philosophers and even called Socrates "the Attic Buffoon."
It is in this way that the relics of St Babylas were placed in the sanctuary built by Gallus at Daphne (Socrates, Hist.
Other objects of his attack were Socrates and Cimon.
The quadratrix of Dinostratus was well known to the ancient Greek geometers, and is mentioned by Proclus, who ascribes the invention of the curve to a contemporary of Socrates, probably Hippias of Elis.
" I seek to imitate the modern Socrates," he wrote to a school friend, " not in talents, but in way of living.
The Latin translations of the Antiquities of Josephus and of the ecclesiastical histories of Theodoret, Sozomen and Socrates, under the title of Historia Tripartita (embracing the years 3 06 -439), were carried out under his supervision.
Although in Greece there was generally wide tolerance, yet in 399 B.C. Socrates" was indicted as an irreligious man, a corrupter of youth, and an innovator in worship."Besides the works quoted above, see Gottfried Arnold's Unparteiische Kirchenand Ketzer-Historie (1699-1700; ed.
Some authors, however, among whom are Eusebius, Jerome and the historian Socrates, place its commencement at the 1st of September; these, however, appear to have confounded the Olympic year with the civil year of the Greeks, or the era of the Seleucidae.
He was an intimate friend of Socrates, who is reported to have said that the sausage-maker's son alone knew how to honour him.
Diogenes Laertius preserves a tradition that it was he, not Crito, who offered to help Socrates to escape from prison.
He was always a poor man, and Socrates advised him "to borrow from himself, by diminishing his expenditure."
From these primary axioms the whole body of necessary thoughts must be developed, and, as Socrates would say, the argument itself will indicate the path of the development.
The whole movement of which Socrates was a part may be said to have been in the direction of the assertion of the rights of the subject.
It was not less against this form of idealism than against the determinism of the early physicists that Socrates protested.
Along two lines the thought of Socrates led to idealistic conclusions which may be said to have formed the basis of all subsequent advance.
This is what Aristotle means by claiming for Socrates that he was the founder of definition.
In expounding these ideas Socrates limited himself to the sphere of practice.
Plato extended the Socratic discovery to the whole of reality and while seeking to see the pre-Socratics with the eyes of Socrates sought " to see Socrates with the.
These truths, however, were hidden from Aristotle's successors, who for the most part lost the thread which Socrates had put into their hand.
It was followed by others, painted on the same principles, but with greater perfection of art: "The Grief of Andromache" (1783), "The Oath of the Horatii" (Salon, 1785), "The Death of Socrates," "Love of Paris and Helen" (1788), "Brutus" (1789).
As such he would have soon ceased to be respected in a society where literature was not recognized as a separate profession, where a Socrates served in the infantry, a Sophocles commanded fleets, a Thucydides was general of an army, and an Antiphon was for a time at the head of the state.
A second decree, it would seem, sent him to Oasis, probably the city of the Great Oasis, in Upper Egypt, where he was still living in 439, at the time when Socrates wrote his Church History.
His work was continued in the 5th century by Philostorgius, Socrates, Sozomen and Theodoret, and in later centuries by Theodorus Lector, Evagrius, Theophanes and others.
In the 6th century Cassiodorus had a translation made of the histories of Socrates, Sozomen and Theodoret, which were woven into one continuous narrative and brought down to 518.
Zeller, Socrates and the Socratic Schools, Eng.
At an early age he came to Athens, and was induced to remain by the fame of Socrates, whose pupil he became.
Like Socrates, he was not a philosopher, and did not pretend to be one; but, as the reasoned scepticism of Socrates cleared the way for the philosophy of Plato, so did Xenophanes's "abnormis sapientia" for the philosophy of Parmenides.