In June the waters of the Mekong, swollen by the rains and the melting of the Tibetan snows, rise to a height of 40 to 45 ft.
Suffice, for there is no sufficient catchment area north of the snows to support it.
It is frequently precipitated as hoar-frost, snow or hail; and in the glaciers and snows of lofty mountain systems or of regions of high latitude it exists on a gigantic scale, being especially characteristic of the seas and lands around the poles.
Snows are frequent during the winter, and sometimes deep in the higher plateau and mountain districts.
It is a rapid and muddy stream, dangerous to cross when swollen by the melting of the snows in Armenia, but fordable in its ordinary state.
But the effect of its southern latitude is tempered by its peninsular character, bounded as it is on both sides by seas of considerable extent, as well as by the great range of the Alps with its snows and glaciers to the north.
When old, the branches, broken and bent down by the winter snows, give it a ragged but very picturesque aspect.
The Aptera have perhaps the most extensive distribution of all animals, being found in Franz Josef Land and South Victoria Land, on the snows of Alpine glaciers, and in the depths of the most extensive caves.
Occasionally, the whole country suffers much from drought; but disastrous floods not unfrequently occur, particularly in the spring, when the beds of the rivers are inadequate to contain the increased volume of water caused by the rapid melting of the snows on the Carpathians.
Swollen by the melting of the winter snows and by heavy rains in the mountains, it is frequently a torrent, and is thus, except in the last few miles, unnavigable for either boats or rafts.
It is traversed by several rivers, fed by the melting snows of the Andes and discharging into the swamps and lagoons in the S.E.
Next to these comes the monkey (saru), which dwells equally among the snows of the north and in the mountainous regions of the south.
Thus far the Ganges has been little more than a series of broad shoals, long deep pools and rapids, except, of course, during the melting of the snows and throughout the rainy season.
The musk deer is found in the snows, and the barking deer on every hill side.
Roscoe in the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute between 1900 and 1908; the duke of the Abruzzi, " The Snows of the Nile," in The Geographical Journal (February 1907); De Filippi, Ruwenzori (1908); J.
Later, he spent long periods on the intertropical coasts of Africa and America, and again among the snows of Spitzbergen.
Across at the widest point and yet showing ridges capped with perpetual snows, the rivers, large or small, are mountain torrents, now swollen floods, anon half dry.
The snows are generally light, and cattle may graze on the prairies during most of the winter; but there are occasional severe " blizzards," which are accompanied by intense cold and high winds.
The turbid Arve is by far its largest tributary (left), and flows from the snows of the chain of Mont Blanc, the only other affluent of any size being the London (right).
It is joined on the right by various streams fed by the snows of the Pyrenees.
The climate is so dry, and the rains are so scarce, that an absence of forests and Alpine meadows is characteristic of the ridge; but when heavy rain falls simultaneously with the melting of the snows in the mountains, the watercourses become filled with furious torrents, which create great havoc. The main glaciers (12) are on the north slope, but none creeps below io,000 to 12,000 ft.
The divide between the rivers flowing west and those flowing east and north is very sharp in the southern Rocky Mountains, but there are two lakes, the Committee's Punch Bowl and Fortress Lake, right astride of it, sending their waters both east and west; and there is a mountain somewhat south of Fortress Lake whose melting snows drain in three directions into tributaries of the Columbia, the Saskatchewan and the Athabasca, so that they are distributed between the Pacific, the Atlantic (Hudson Bay) and the Arctic Oceans.
In Quebec and northern Ontario the rainfall is diminished, ranging from 20 to 40 in., while the snows of winter are deep and generally cover the ground from the beginning of December to the end of March.
Among the great alpine rivers we may distinguish two classes: those which spring directly from glaciers and those which rise in lakes, these being fed by eternal snows or glaciers.
Among its characteristic features is a cataract fed by melting snows, which descends 1500 ft.
Part of the great central plateau is arid and has a very light rainfall; it has no streams, therefore, except from melting snows, and the higher elevations which receive the impact of the easterly winds.
Arises from the fact that the rivers of northern India are fed by the Himalayan snows, and, therefore, afford a supply of water which surpasses in constancy and volume any of the rivers of the south.
The coastal zone is traversed by the Tumbes, Chira and Piura rivers, which have their sources in the melting snows of the higher Andes and flow westward across the desert to the coast.
On the eastern side of both rivers are various important tributaries, fed by the more abundant rains and melting snows of the western flank of the Sierra; but these streams also shrink greatly in the dry season.
Of previous winter snows, thus making worse what is already bad.
In the valleys there are usually about two snows a year and these quickly disappear; but on the mountain peaks and in the canyons the snow accumulates to great depths and forms a steady source of water-supply for the rivers.
It is the melting of the snows on the Rocky Mountains, and not the rainy season, that produces the floods of the Rio Grande.
This region is rainless, barren and inhospitable, absolutely destitute of vegetation except in some small river valleys where irrigation is possible, and on the slopes of some of the snow-covered peaks where the water from the melting snows nourishes a scanty and coarse vege tation before it disappears in the thirsty sands.
They are fed from the melting snows and periodical storms of the higher Andes, and most of them are completely dry part of the year.
During heavy rains and when the snows on the hills melt, thousands of streams flow from all directions into the innumerable depressions of inner Persia, or help to swell the perennial rivers which have no outlet to the sea.
Mountain snows feed the Gila, the Little Colorado, and the Colorado rivers.
All winter snows fall heavily.
But more often worn to rolling downs; then the limestone range - writing-desk mountains that turn their steep fronts to the central snows; lastly low Cretaceous foothills, that sink softly into the steppe.
Southwards too, immediately under the snows, we find ` crystalline schists,' smooth grassy heights, separated by shallow trenches, which form the lesser undulations of the three basins, the drei Langenhochthdler Imeritiens of Dr Radde.
From the snows, is marked by a limestone belt, lower and less continuous than that on the north, which frames the gorges of the Rion, and rises in the Kuamli (6352 ft.) and Nakarala 4774 ft.) near Kutais, its best known elevations."
These figures show that tolerably mild winters (as a whole, apart from the extremes of cold already indicated) are followed by cool summers, both seasons being accompanied by overcast skies, constant and sudden changes from fair to foul weather; while fogs, mists, rains, snows and high winds (prevailing throughout the year) endanger the navigation of the intricate inland channels.
The rainfall is heavy in the wet season, causing many of the rivers to spread over extensive areas, but in the dry season the inundated plains become dry, the large rivers fed by the snows and rainfall of the Andes return within their banks, the shallow lagoons and smaller streams dry up, vegetation disappears, and the level plain becomes a desert.
Here, on a summer's day, with the scent of roses pervading the heated air, the cool refreshment of the passing breezes and of splashing fountains may be enjoyed by the officials of the Kabul court, whilst they look across the beauty of the thickly planted plains of Chardeh to the rugged outlines of Paghman and the snows of the Hindu Kush.
Although it rains and snows heavily on the mountains, only II in.
Twothirds of the days of the year are cloudy; on about 208 days in the year it rains or snows; the normal rainfall is 88.1 in., the extreme recorded rainfall (in 1886) is 140.26 in.
The wheat region is a country of heavy snows, and of severe, dry cold; but when March comes the snows begin to melt away, and by April the ploughed land is dry enough for the harrow.
July is quite warm; the great rivers come down full from the melting snows in the mountains.
The first is an arid desert absolutely barren along part of the coast, between Tacna and Copiapo, but with a coarse scanty vegetation near the Cordilleras along watercourses and on the slopes where moisture from the melting snows above percolates through the sand.