(1324-1359), to whom Boccaccio dedicated one of his works, and who set on foot an alliance with the pope, Venice and the Hospitallers, which resulted in the capture of Smyrna (1344).
In 1804 Rich went to Constantinople, where, and at Smyrna, he stayed some time, perfecting himself in Turkish.
It was the most northern of the Ionian cities, and was situated on the coast of the peninsula which separates the gulf of Cyme, occupied by Aeolian settlers, from the Hermaean Gulf, on which stood Smyrna and Clazomenae.
About 1880, while the Gediz Chai was throwing its silt unchecked into the Gulf of Smyrna and gradually filling the navigable channel, there was talk of reviving Fokia as a new port for Smyrna, and connecting it with the Cassaba railway.
When Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, was martyred (A.D.
The Church writers who flourished toward the end of the apostolic age and during the half century that followed it, including Clement of Rome, Ignatius of Antioch, Polycarp of Smyrna and the author known as "Barnabas."
Clement proclaimed a crusade in 1343, but nothing was accomplished beyond a naval attack on Smyrna (29th of October 1344).
St Polycarp, the disciple of St John the Evangelist and bishop of Smyrna, visited Rome in 159 to confer with Anicetus, the bishop of that see, on the subject; and urged the tradition, which he had received from the apostle, of observing the fourteenth day.
Loo), nor by Theon of Smyrna (c. A.D.
It was this enterprise which brought him into antagonism with Rome, since Smyrna and Lampsacus appealed to the republic of the west, and the tension became greater after Antiochus had in 196 established a footing in Thrace.
- Smyrna is the principal centre of cotton cultivation in this region.
2.5 East Indies „ ' 1 Smyrna or Turkey 5.7 The British Cotton Growing Association works under the sanction of a royal charter and has met with valuable official support.
In 1344 a Crusade, in which Venice, the Cypriots, and the Hospitallers all joined, ended in the conquest of Smyrna; in 1345 another Crusade, led by Humbert, dauphin of Vienne, ended in failure.
In 1776, the Minorcans of New Smyrna refused to work longer on the indigo plantations; and many of them removed to St Augustine, where they were protected by the authorities.
But it was the old cry of the " autonomy of the Hellenes," raised by Smyrna and Lampsacus, which ultimately brought Antiochus III.
1652-1697), " a religious maiden," visited Smyrna, the Morea and the court of Mahommed IV.
Hermodorus and Hermippus of Smyrna place him 5000 years before the Trojan war, Xanthus 6000 years before Xerxes, Eudoxus and Aristotle 6000 years before the death of Plato.
The following towns have over 50,000 inhabitants each: Constantinople, 1,150,000; Smyrna, 250,000; Bagdad, 145,000; Damascus, 145,000; Aleppo, 122,000; Beirut, 118,000; Adrianople, 81,000; Brusa, 76,000; Jerusalem, 56,000; Caesarea Mazaca (Kaisarieh), 72,000; Kerbela, 65,000; Monastir, 53,000; Mosul, 61,000; Mecca, 60,000; Homs, 60,000; Sana, 58,000; Urfa, 55,000; and Marash, 52,000.
The table on the following page, for which the writer is indebted to the kindness of Carolidi Effendi, formerly professor of history in the university of Athens, and in 1910 deputy for Smyrna in the Turkish parliament, shows the various races of the Ottoman Empire, the regions which they inhabit, and the religions which they profess.
Among the Christians, especially the Armenians, the Greeks of Smyrna and the Syrians of Beirut, it has long embraced a considerable range of subjects, such as classical Greek, Armenian and Syriac, as well as modern French, Italian and English, modern history, geography and medicine.
The chief centres of export are Adrianople (more than half), Constantinople and Smyrna, the others being Brusa, Beirut, Ismid, Mytilene and Salonica.
Finally, various receipts of which the principal separately specified are government share of railway receipts (Oriental railways and Smyrna-Cassaba railway), ET201,710, and " subscriptions " for the Hejaz railway, ET264,600, form Section VIII.
After capturing Smyrna he returned to Samarkand (1405).
The modern town is connected with Smyrna by railway, and exports cotton, wool, opium, cocoons and cereals.
Sir Edward Codrington, then commander-in-chief in the Mediterranean, received the treaty and his instructions on the night of the loth/11th of August at Smyrna, and proceeded at once to Nauplia to communicate them to the Greeks.
In 1838 he went to Asia Minor, making Smyrna his headquarters.
After taking sketches of the most interesting objects and copying a number of inscriptions, he returned to Smyrna through Caria and Lydia.
His first speech appears to have been on the 22nd of January 1673, in which he inveighed against the stop of the exchequer, the attack on the Smyrna fleet, the corruption of courtiers with French money, and "the ill ministers about the king."
The unsuitability of the harbour for modern steamers, the bad anchorage outside and the extension of railways from Smyrna have greatly lessened its former importance as an emporium for west central Anatolia.
The Church of Smyrna had early to explain its position in this matter with regard to St Polycarp: "We worship Christ, as the Son of God; as to the martyrs, we love them as the disciples and imitators of the Lord" (Martyrium Polycarpi, xvii.
At the time however when active operations began the 42nd Division and one of the French divisions could 1 The chief naval incidents of this month were: - a raid by the Turkish destroyer " Demir Hissar " which sank the British transport " Manitou " on March 16, but had to be blown up next day off Chios to avoid capture; an attempt of the British submarine E15 to enter the Straits, which led to her being forced ashore (April 16) and in the sequel to her destruction by a daring boat's crew from the " Majestic " (April 18); bombardments of the defences of Smyrna on March 28, April 6 and April 22; and operations at Gaza and El Arish on the Syrian coast by the French battleship " St.
Other rock-sculptures at Giaur Kalessi, in Galatia, and in the Karabel pass near Smyrna, he suspected of belonging to the same class 2; and visiting the last-named locality in the autumn, he found Hittite pictographs accompanying one of the two figures.
3 He announced his discoveries in 1880, and proclaimed the fact that a great Hittite empire, extending from Kadesh to Smyrna, had risen from the dead.
Asian excavation; but small Hittite objects have been sold in Smyrna and Aidin.
The Nymphi (Kara Bel) and Niobe sculptures near Smyrna are probably memorials of that extension, Certainly some inland Anatolian power seems to have kept Aegean settlers and culture away from the Ionian coast during the Bronze Age, and that power was in all likelihood the Hatti kingdom of Cappadocia.
By Macrinus he was entrusted with the administration of Pergamum and Smyrna; and on his return to Rome he was raised to the consulship about 220.
From the Bosporus at HaidarPasha, and 389 from Smyrna by way of Afium-Kara-Hissar.
It is enumerated as third, after Ephesus and Smyrna, in the list of cities of the Thracesian thema given by Constantine Porphyrogenitus in the 10th century; but in the actual history of the next four centuries it plays a part very inferior to Magnesia ad Sipylum and Philadelphia (see ALA-Shehe), which have retained their pre-eminence in the district.
Its site is now absolutely deserted, except that a tiny village, Sart, merely a few huts inhabited by seminomadic Yuruks, exists beside the Pactolus, and that there is a station of the Smyrna & Cassaba railway 1 m.
Of Smyrna (105 by railway).
In 1693 he commanded the Smyrna convoy, which was scattered and partly taken by the French admiral Tourville near Lagos Bay.
8, 10, and at Smyrna, ii.
POLYCARP (c. 69 - c. 155), bishop of Smyrna and one of the Apostolic Fathers, derives much of his importance from the fact that he links together the apostolic age and that of nascent Catholicism.
The sources from which we derive our knowledge of the life and activity of Polycarp are: (1) a few notices in the writings of Irenaeus, (2) the Epistle of Polycarp to the Church at Philippi, (3) the Epistle of Ignatius to Polycarp, (4) the Epistle of the Church at Smyrna to the Church at Philomelium, giving an account of the martyrdom of Polycarp. Since these authorities have all been more or less called in question and some of them entirely rejected by recent criticism, it is necessary to say a few words about each.
The Letter of the Church at Smyrna to the Philomelians is a most important document, because we derive from it all our information with regard to Polycarp's martyrdom.
The epistle gives a minute description of the persecution in Smyrna, of the last days of Polycarp and of his trial and martyrdom; and as it contains many instructive details and professes to have been written not long after the events to which it refers, it has always been regarded as one of the most precious remains of the 2nd century.
Though Polycarp must have been bishop of Smyrna for nearly half a century we know next to nothing about his career.
- Ignatius, while on his way to Rome to suffer martyrdom, halted at Smyrna and received a warm welcome from the church and its bishop. Upon reaching Troas he despatched two letters, one to the church at Smyrna, another addressed personally to Polycarp. In these letters Ignatius charged Polycarp to write to all the churches between Smyrna and Syria (since his hurried departure from Troas made it impossible for him to do so in person) urging them to send letters and delegates to the church at Antioch to congratulate it upon the cessation of the persecution and to establish it in the faith.
Brewer) to Smyrna, Turkey, for the purpose of studying Oriental languages, but after three years he returned to the United States, and in 1837 graduated at Williams College at the head of his class.
Eastern Thrace and a considerable territory around Smyrna were assigned to Greece.