In these Flemish cities the early oligarchic form of municipal government speedily gave way to a democratic. The great mass of the townsmen organized in trade gilds - weavers, fullers, dyers, smiths, leather-workers, brewers, butchers, bakers and others, of which by far the most powerful was that of the weavers - as soon as they became conscious of their strength rebelled against the exclusive privileges of the patricians and succeeded in ousting them from power.
It had large gilds of fabri (smiths and carpenters) and centonarii (firemen) .
Their sideboards were covered with the copper and silver work of Eastern smiths and the confectioneries of Damascus.
That the Kenites, too, were a race of metal-workers is quite uncertain, although even at the present day the smiths in Arabia form a distinct nomadic class.
(5) The Chalkeia (feast of smiths), at which the birth of Erechtheus and the invention.
Those of weavers, smiths, armourers, merchants, hunters, and even the general and the sailor.
Sword-blades have been made here since the early middle ages, and tradition affirms that the art was introduced during the Crusades by smiths from Damascus.
Coals richer in hydrogen, on the other hand, are more useful for burning in open fires - smiths' forges and furnaces - where a long flame is required.
The designs were identical with those in favour with the goldand silver-smiths of the period, which was happily one when exceptionally good taste prevailed.
Palladius, who visited the Egyptian monasteries about the close of the 4th century, found among the 300 members of the coenobium of Panopolis, under the Pachomian rule, 15 tailors, 7 smiths, 4 carpenters, 12 camel-drivers and 15 tanners.
Foresters, seamen, smiths, &c.), and hence are called professional associations (Berufsgenossenschaften).
Iron is smelted by the natives, who, especially amongst the Hausas, are very clever smiths, and manufacture fine lances and arrow heads, knives and swords, and also hoes.
For Elliott Smiths results see The Cairo Scientific Journal, No.
The supposed figures of glass-blowers in early scenes are really those of smiths, blowing their fires by means of reeds tipped with clay.
In wrought iron the German smiths, especially during the 15th century, greatly excelled.
In the ornamental iron-work for doors the French smiths were pre-eminent for the richness of design and skilful treatment of their metal.
Cast iron, brought to perfection by the Coalbrookdale Company about 1860, but now little esteemed, owing to the poverty of design which so often counterfeits smiths' work, presents great opportunities to founders possessing taste or willing to submit to artistic control.
The malleability and ductility of metals lie at the basis of the work of the goldand silver-smiths at one extreme, and of the boiler-maker at the other.
IO 3.22 2 1901 in teaching carpentry and smithy-work to boys who never intended to be carpenters or smiths; but this misdirection of industry has since been remedied, and the industrial schools have been made the first stepping-stone towards a professional career.
Whether he was also, like Hephaestus, the deity of smiths, is very doubtful; his surname Mulciber may rather be referred to his power to allay conflagrations.
Smiths method already referred to in 23.
Good smiths' and carpenters' work is done.
These arrangements lasted till 1891, when, on Smiths death, the treasury and the lead of the Commons were entrusted to Lord Salisburys nephew, Mr Arthur Balfour, who had made a great reputation as chief secretary for Ireland.
The publican was fighting one of the smiths at the door, and when the workmen came out the smith, wrenching himself free from the tavern keeper, fell face downward on the pavement.