Within the town are situated the smelting-works, the mint, and a Government weapon factory.
In this part of the township a copper mine was worked between 1705 and 1745, and smelting and refining works were built in 1721.
The principal industry is the smelting and refining of lead, and the smelting works are among the most interesting sights of the city.
In Roman times, and until 1900, however, owing to lack of fuel, the smelting was done on the mainland.
The mines once produced 3000 tons of metal annually, copper smelting being largely carried on, but have now almost ceased working.
The returns from the copper fields in the state are at present a little over half a million sterling per annum, and would be still greater if it were not for the lack of suitable fuel for smelting purposes, which renders the economical treatment of the ore difficult; the development of the mines is also retarded by the want of easy and cheaper communication with the coast.
In unlimited supply, important deposits of rich iron ores suitable for smelting purposes; and for the manufacture of steel of certain descriptions abundance of manganese, chrome and tungsten ores are available.
Elba was famous for its mines in early times, and the smelting furnaces gave it its Greek name of A' OaNia ("soot island").
The bulk of the sulphur mines are in Sicily, while the majority of the lead and zinc mines are in Sardinia; much of the lead smelting is done at Pertusola, near Genoa, the company formed for this purpose having acquired many of the Sardinian mines.
The copper industry has greatly declined since the 18th century; whereas then it kept 20 smelting works employed, now one-tenth of that number can hardly be kept going.
There are smelting furnaces in several districts, as at Alfreton, Chesterfield, Derby, Ilkeston.
In smelting at once in the same blast-furnace ores of different character, the old use of separate processes of precipitation, roasting and reduction, and general reduction prevailing in the Harz Mountains, Freiberg and other places, to suit local conditions, has been abandoned.
The smelting zone always has a bosh and a contracted tuyere section.
While the furnace is running the crucible and channel remain filled with lead; all the lead reduced to the metallic state in smelting collects in the crucible, and rising in the channel, overflows into the basin, whence it is removed.
The effect of the two processes on the purity of the market lead is clearly shown by the two following analyses by Hampe, which represent lead from Lautenthal in the Harz Mountains, where the Parkes process replaced that of Pattinson, the ores and smelting process remaining practically the same: - It is absolutely necessary for the success of the Parkes process that the zinc and lead should contain only a small amount of impurity.
The latest cupelling furnaces have the general form of a reverberatory copper-smelting furnace.
Ingalls, Lead Smelting and Refining (1906); A.
By W., and there are smelting works at Karlsvik in the vicinity.
The value of the mining (except salt) and smelting production in Hungary amounted in 1900 to £4,500,000, while in 1877 the value was only £I,50o,000.
The number of persons employed in mining and smelting works was (1900 census) 70,476.
So highly developed indeed were the Magyar methods of smelting, that Louis XI.
Small up to the beginning of the 19th century, Holywell has increasingly prospered, thanks to lime quarries, lead, copper and zinc mines, smelting works, a shot manufactory, copper, brass, iron and zinc works; brewing, tanning and mineral water, flannel and cement works.
The operations in the metallurgy of tin may be enumerated as: (1) mining and dressing, (2) smelting, (3) refining.
Shaft furnace smelting is confined to those parts of the world where charcoal can still be obtained in large quantities at moderate prices.
Copper smelting has been carried on in or near the town since 1584 when the Mines Royal Society set up works at Neath Abbey; the industry attained huge proportions a century later under Sir Humphrey Mackworth, who from 16 9 5 carried on copper and lead smelting at Melincrythan.
The chief industrial establishments are smelting furnaces for cobalt, meat-preserving works at Ouaco, sugar-works and distilleries at Noumea and La Foa, tobacco, oil and soap factories at Noumea.
It is not known to whom the discovery of isolated zinc is due; but we do know that the art of zinc-smelting was practised in England from about 1730.
As ores of zinc are usually shipped before smelting from widely separated places - Sweden, Spain, Algiers, Italy, Greece, Australia and the Rocky Mountains region of North America - it is important that they be separated from their mixtures at the mines.
When used for ore smelting, the reduced metal and the accompanying slag were to be caught, after leaving the arc and while still liquid, in a hearth fired with ordinary fuel.
Cowles's zinc-smelting retort.
In the remaining class of furnace, in which the electrical resistance of the charge itself is utilized, are the continuous-current furnaces, such as are used for the smelting of aluminium, and those alternating-current furnaces, (e.g.
Smelting for neighbouring mines is still carried on, and some of its former trade remains, but the greater part of it has gone to Tocopilla and Antofagasta.
The manufacture of felt hats (product, 1905, $4,586,040, Newark ranking third in this industry among the cities of the United States), carriages, chairs and jewelry (an industry established about 1830; product, 1905, $9,258,095), developed rapidly early in the 19th century, and there are extensive manufactories of malt liquors (product, 1905, $10,917,003), and of clothing (product, 1905, $3,937,138), foundries and machine shops (product, 1905, $6,254,153), and large establishments for smelting and refining lead and copper, the product of the lead smelters and refining establishments being in 1905 the most valuable in the city.
There are large smelting-works, foundries, puddling-works, rolling-mills and manufactures of iron and plated wares.
Valuable timber was afforded by the vast forest of the Weald, but the restrictions imposed on the felling of wood for fuel did serious detriment to the iron-trade, and after the statute of 1558 forbidding the felling of timber for iron-smelting within fourteen miles of the coast the industry steadily declined.
An improvement was shown only in the position of employees in smelting works, otherwise a deterioration is to be observed everywhere, most markedly in the textile industry.
There are ship and boat building yards, engineering works, lead and copper smelting works, cement works and brick and tile works.
The smelting and refining of the metal ores is also an important industry.
He visited all parts of the country himself, and personally encouraged agriculture; he introduced a more economical mode of mining and smelting silver; he favoured the importation of finer breeds of sheep and cattle; and he brought foreign weavers from abroad to teach the Saxons.
With the exception of the smelting and refining of copper, manufacturing is in Montana a decidedly minor industry.
Buffalo, the second city in manufactures, shares largely with New York City the business of slaughtering and meat packing, the refining and smelting of copper, and the manufacture of foundry and machineshop products, and with New York City and Rochester the manufacture of flour and grist-mill products.
In Mexico, Colombia and Peru the cutting of friable stone with tough volcanic hammers and chisels, as well as rude metallurgy, obtained, but the evidences of smelting are not convincing.