Within the town are situated the smelting-works, the mint, and a Government weapon factory.
In Roman times, and until 1900, however, owing to lack of fuel, the smelting was done on the mainland.
In this part of the township a copper mine was worked between 1705 and 1745, and smelting and refining works were built in 1721.
The principal industry is the smelting and refining of lead, and the smelting works are among the most interesting sights of the city.
The mines once produced 3000 tons of metal annually, copper smelting being largely carried on, but have now almost ceased working.
While the furnace is running the crucible and channel remain filled with lead; all the lead reduced to the metallic state in smelting collects in the crucible, and rising in the channel, overflows into the basin, whence it is removed.
The smelting and refining of the metal ores is also an important industry.
The returns from the copper fields in the state are at present a little over half a million sterling per annum, and would be still greater if it were not for the lack of suitable fuel for smelting purposes, which renders the economical treatment of the ore difficult; the development of the mines is also retarded by the want of easy and cheaper communication with the coast.
In unlimited supply, important deposits of rich iron ores suitable for smelting purposes; and for the manufacture of steel of certain descriptions abundance of manganese, chrome and tungsten ores are available.
Elba was famous for its mines in early times, and the smelting furnaces gave it its Greek name of A' OaNia ("soot island").
The bulk of the sulphur mines are in Sicily, while the majority of the lead and zinc mines are in Sardinia; much of the lead smelting is done at Pertusola, near Genoa, the company formed for this purpose having acquired many of the Sardinian mines.
The copper industry has greatly declined since the 18th century; whereas then it kept 20 smelting works employed, now one-tenth of that number can hardly be kept going.
There are smelting furnaces in several districts, as at Alfreton, Chesterfield, Derby, Ilkeston.
In smelting at once in the same blast-furnace ores of different character, the old use of separate processes of precipitation, roasting and reduction, and general reduction prevailing in the Harz Mountains, Freiberg and other places, to suit local conditions, has been abandoned.
The effect of the two processes on the purity of the market lead is clearly shown by the two following analyses by Hampe, which represent lead from Lautenthal in the Harz Mountains, where the Parkes process replaced that of Pattinson, the ores and smelting process remaining practically the same: - It is absolutely necessary for the success of the Parkes process that the zinc and lead should contain only a small amount of impurity.
The latest cupelling furnaces have the general form of a reverberatory copper-smelting furnace.
Ingalls, Lead Smelting and Refining (1906); A.
By W., and there are smelting works at Karlsvik in the vicinity.
The value of the mining (except salt) and smelting production in Hungary amounted in 1900 to £4,500,000, while in 1877 the value was only £I,50o,000.
The number of persons employed in mining and smelting works was (1900 census) 70,476.
Small up to the beginning of the 19th century, Holywell has increasingly prospered, thanks to lime quarries, lead, copper and zinc mines, smelting works, a shot manufactory, copper, brass, iron and zinc works; brewing, tanning and mineral water, flannel and cement works.
The operations in the metallurgy of tin may be enumerated as: (1) mining and dressing, (2) smelting, (3) refining.
Shaft furnace smelting is confined to those parts of the world where charcoal can still be obtained in large quantities at moderate prices.
Copper smelting has been carried on in or near the town since 1584 when the Mines Royal Society set up works at Neath Abbey; the industry attained huge proportions a century later under Sir Humphrey Mackworth, who from 16 9 5 carried on copper and lead smelting at Melincrythan.
The chief industrial establishments are smelting furnaces for cobalt, meat-preserving works at Ouaco, sugar-works and distilleries at Noumea and La Foa, tobacco, oil and soap factories at Noumea.
It is not known to whom the discovery of isolated zinc is due; but we do know that the art of zinc-smelting was practised in England from about 1730.
As ores of zinc are usually shipped before smelting from widely separated places - Sweden, Spain, Algiers, Italy, Greece, Australia and the Rocky Mountains region of North America - it is important that they be separated from their mixtures at the mines.
When used for ore smelting, the reduced metal and the accompanying slag were to be caught, after leaving the arc and while still liquid, in a hearth fired with ordinary fuel.
Cowles's zinc-smelting retort.
There is, however, one (not insuperable) drawback in the use of the electric furnace for the smelting of pure metals.
A smelting plant was erected in the vicinity of Cerro de Pasco designed to treat moo tons of ore daily, a railway was built to Oroya to connect with the state line terminating at that point, and a branch line 62 m.
In addition to the smelting works at Cerro de Pasco there are other large works at Casapalca, between Oroya and Lima, which belong to a British company, and smaller plants at Huallanca and Huinac. The production of copper is steadily increasing, the returns for 1903 being 9497 tons and for 1906 13,474 tons, valued respectively at £476,824 and £996,055.
There are large copper-smelting establishments in the city, which exports a very large amount of copper, some gold and silver, and cattle and hay to the more northern provinces.
His reports on smelting and assaying were remarkable for their detail and for the comparisons drawn between Swedish and other methods.
The other volumes dealt with (a) iron and steel, (b) copper and brass, their smelting, conversion and assaying, and chemical experiments thereon.
For further information the following books, among others, may be consulted: - Haber, Grundriss der technischen Elektrochemie (Munchen, 1898); Borchers and M`Millan, Electric Smelting and Refining (London, 1904); E.
Considerable progress has been made in manufacturing industries, and there are a large number of sugar-mills, cotton factories, woollen mills, smelting works and iron and steel works.
It was at one time proposed to treat the concentrated black iron obtained in the Ural gold washings, which consists chiefly of magnetite, as an iron ore, by smelting it with charcoal for auriferous pigiron, the latter metal possessing the property of dissolving gold in considerable quantity.
This is smelted with rich gold ores, notably those containing tellurium, for white metal or regulus; and by a following process of partial reduction analogous to that of selecting in copper smelting, " bottoms " of impure copper are obtained in which practically all the gold is concentrated.
Calcination in reverberatory furnaces and a subsequent smelting in the same type of furnace with the addition of about 3% of coal, lime, soda and fluorspar, has been adopted for treating the Bolivian ores, which generally contain the sulphides of bismuth, copper, iron, antimony, lead and a little silver.
Ores containing the oxide and carbonate are treated either by smelting with carbon or by a wet process.
It possesses smelting works and a school of mining.
Other local industries of some importance include smelting, and manufactures of beds, furniture, railway carriages, matches, paper, sweets and woollen and cotton goods.
There are blast furnaces in the neighbouring parish of Asfordby for the smelting of the abundant supply of iron ore in the district.
In Mexico, Colombia and Peru the cutting of friable stone with tough volcanic hammers and chisels, as well as rude metallurgy, obtained, but the evidences of smelting are not convincing.
No evidence of smelting ores with fluxes is offered, but casting from metal melted in open fires is assumed.
Buffalo, the second city in manufactures, shares largely with New York City the business of slaughtering and meat packing, the refining and smelting of copper, and the manufacture of foundry and machineshop products, and with New York City and Rochester the manufacture of flour and grist-mill products.
With the exception of the smelting and refining of copper, manufacturing is in Montana a decidedly minor industry.
He visited all parts of the country himself, and personally encouraged agriculture; he introduced a more economical mode of mining and smelting silver; he favoured the importation of finer breeds of sheep and cattle; and he brought foreign weavers from abroad to teach the Saxons.
An improvement was shown only in the position of employees in smelting works, otherwise a deterioration is to be observed everywhere, most markedly in the textile industry.
There are ship and boat building yards, engineering works, lead and copper smelting works, cement works and brick and tile works.
Valuable timber was afforded by the vast forest of the Weald, but the restrictions imposed on the felling of wood for fuel did serious detriment to the iron-trade, and after the statute of 1558 forbidding the felling of timber for iron-smelting within fourteen miles of the coast the industry steadily declined.
There are large smelting-works, foundries, puddling-works, rolling-mills and manufactures of iron and plated wares.
The manufacture of felt hats (product, 1905, $4,586,040, Newark ranking third in this industry among the cities of the United States), carriages, chairs and jewelry (an industry established about 1830; product, 1905, $9,258,095), developed rapidly early in the 19th century, and there are extensive manufactories of malt liquors (product, 1905, $10,917,003), and of clothing (product, 1905, $3,937,138), foundries and machine shops (product, 1905, $6,254,153), and large establishments for smelting and refining lead and copper, the product of the lead smelters and refining establishments being in 1905 the most valuable in the city.
The cost derives from the application of huge amounts of energy, intelligence, and technology to obtain and process the raw materials: digging and smelting to create high-grade steel, harvesting and refining and molding to make rubber parts, and so on.
Ironstone is not extensively wrought, but, on account of the abundant supply of coal, large quantities are imported for smelting purposes.
It has cotton factories, smelting works, potteries, tanneries, distilleries, and wagon and tobacco factories.
Metallurgical operations, such as smelting, roasting, and refining, were scientifically investigated, and in some degree explained, by Georg Agricola and Carlo Biringuiccio; ceramics was studied by Bernard Palissy, who is also to be remembered as an early worker in agricultural chemistry, having made experiments on the effect of manures on soils and crops; while general technical chemistry was enriched by Johann Rudolf Glauber.1
The Egyptians obtained silver, iron, copper, lead, zinc and tin, either pure or as alloys, by smelting the ores; mercury is mentioned by Theophrastus (c. 300 B.C.).
Here is situated the Dreher brewery, the largest in the monarchy; and there are also important smelting and iron works, cotton-spinning, factories of electrical plant, &c. The meeting at Schwechat of the emperor Leopold I.
The smelting zone always has a bosh and a contracted tuyere section.
The cost of smelting a ton of ore in Colorado in a single furnace, 42 by 120 in.
Peters, Principles of Copper Smelting (New York, 1907); F.
Smelting for neighbouring mines is still carried on, and some of its former trade remains, but the greater part of it has gone to Tocopilla and Antofagasta.