Of zinc. This region now furnishes the bulk of the ore required by the smelters of Illinois, Missouri and Kansas.
The city is the commercial and financial centre of the state (Butte being the mining centre), and is one of the richest cities in the United States in proportion to its population, It has large railway car-shops, extensive smelters and quartz crushers (at East Helena), and various manufacturing establishments; the value of the factory product in 1905 was $1,309,746, an increase of 68.7% over that of 1900.
The manufacture of felt hats (product, 1905, $4,586,040, Newark ranking third in this industry among the cities of the United States), carriages, chairs and jewelry (an industry established about 1830; product, 1905, $9,258,095), developed rapidly early in the 19th century, and there are extensive manufactories of malt liquors (product, 1905, $10,917,003), and of clothing (product, 1905, $3,937,138), foundries and machine shops (product, 1905, $6,254,153), and large establishments for smelting and refining lead and copper, the product of the lead smelters and refining establishments being in 1905 the most valuable in the city.
There are smelters and cyanide extracters in the district, but the bulk of the ore product is shipped to other places for treatment.
Other important manufactories are flour mills, of which there were over 500 in 1904; iron and steel works, of which there are 7 large establishments, including the immense plant at Monterey; 90 smelters for the reduction of precious metals; tanneries, potteries, and factories for the manufacture of hats, paper, linen, hammocks, harness and saddles, matches, explosives, aerated waters, soap, furniture, chocolate and sweetmeats.
From Kinlochewe at the head of the dam erected in the 16th century (or earlier) by the iron-smelters of the Cheardach Ruardh, or Red Smiddy, on the short but impetuous river Ewe by which it drains to the sea.
Modern smelters carefully extract this silver from the lead ore, thereby greatly impairing the durability and beauty of the metal.
Copper is scarcely less widely distributed than gold, but the production of it awaits smelters and better facilities for transportation.
There are many large smelters and reduction plants in the state, most of them at Denver, Leadville, Durango and Pueblo; at the latter place there are also blast-furnaces, a steel plant and rolling mills.
A law establishing an eighthour day for underground miners and smelter employees (1899) was unanimously voided by the state supreme court, but in 1902 the people amended the constitution and ordered the general assembly to re-enact the law for labourers in mines, smelters and dangerous employments.
Among the manufactures are zinc spelter-there are large smelters here-clay products (chiefly vitrified brick, sewer pipe and tile; the clay being obtained from a great underlying bed of shale), blasting powder, packinghouse products and planing-mill products.
There are lead and zinc smelters, and a large vitrified brick and tile factory.
There are copper smelters at Garfield, Copperton and Binghamton.
This predominance was largely due to the smelting and refining industry, the smelters being chiefly in the rural districts.
Iola, in Allen county, is the centre of the field, and the gas yields heat, light, and a cheap fuel for smelters, cement-works and other manufacturing plants throughout a large region.