Delfzyl, which was formerly an important fortress for the protection of the ancient sluices on the little river Delf (hence its name), has greatly benefited by the construction of the Ems (Eems) shipcanal connecting it with Groningen, and has a good harbour with a considerable import trade in wood.
As examples of class (i.) may be mentioned - erection or enlargement of buildings, laying down of permanent pasture, making of gardens or fences, planting of hops, embankments and sluices; as examples of (ii.) - chalking of land, clay burning, application to land of purchased artificial or purchased manure, except they have been made for the purpose of making provision to protect the holding from injury or deterioration.
Under ordinary conditions the sluices are raised to admit boats to pass from the half flood to half ebb, so that the river remains tidal up to Teddington, the next lock.
Long ditches with stone-paved sluices for washing this mineral-bearing material have long been used by the Indians, who also construct stone bars across the beds of the streams to make riffles and hold the deposited grains of gold.
The area south of this would be divided into four polders, with reservation, however, of a lake, Yselmeer, in the centre, whence branches would run to Ysel and the Zwolsche Diep, to Amsterdam, and, by sluices near Wieringen, to the northern part of the sea.
The gain would be the addition to the kingdom of a new and fertile province of the area of North Brabant, a saving of expenses on dikes, diminution of inundations, improvement of communication between the south and the north of the kingdom, protection of isles of the sea, &c. The costs were calculated as follows: (I) enclosing dike, sluices, and regulation of Zwolsche Diep, £1,760,000; (2) reclamation of four polders, £5,200,000; (3) defensive works, £400,000; (4) indemnity to fishermen, £180,000; total, £7,540,000.
In workings on a larger scale, where the supply of water is abundant, as in California, sluices were generally employed.
In larger plant the upper ends of the sluices are often cut in rock or lined with stone blocks, the grating stopping the larger stones being known as a " grizzly."
Sluices are often made double, and they are usually cleaned up - that is, the deposit rich in gold is removed from them - once a week.
The stream, laden with stones and gravel, passes into the sluices, where the gold is recovered in the manner already described.
Now, the dykes were cut and the sluices opened, and Amsterdam was covered by a wide inundation, against which the invader was powerless.
Sluices were arranged to slide be tween the wheel and casing, and by their means the range of action could be varied from 300 H.P. at 120 revs.
1808), who designed the sea-sluices at Katwyk.
The famous dam of Ma'rib and its sluices were the work of this ancient prince - structures which Arnaud in the 19th century found in the same state in which Hamdani saw them a thousand years ago.
By a system of sluices regulating the outflow of the Achray.
It is navigable from Naumburg, too m., with the help of sluices, and is connected with the Elster near Leipzig by a canal.
Long, and over loo bays or sluices, each 161 ft.
There are three distinct classes of weirs, namely, solid weirs, draw-door weirs, including regulating sluices for irrigation, and movable weirs, which retain the water above them for navigation during the low stage of the river, and can be lowered or removed so as to leave the channel quite open in flood-time.
The barrage at the head of the Nile delta, and the regulating sluices across the Nile at Assiut and Esna in Upper Egypt below Assuan, are examples of draw-door weirs, with their numerous openings closed by sluice-gates sliding on free rollers, which control the discharge of water from the river for irrigation.
10, by which date, by damming the lower reaches of the Yser and opening the sluices between Dixmude and Nieuport, a large flooded area was placed between the two armies.
In 1643 it stood a siege of six weeks, but the new governor Ferdinando Fairfax, 2nd Baron Fairfax, obliged the Royalist army to retreat by opening the sluices and placing the surrounding country under water.
The Rhine in its course through Holland is merely the parent stream of several important branches, splitting up into Rhine and Waal, Rhine and Ysel, Crooked Rhine and Lek (which takes two-thirds of the waters), and at Utrecht into Old Rhine and Vecht, finally reaching the sea through the sluices at Katwijk as little more than a drainage canal.
Following the example of the great Kampen irrigation canal in Belgium, artificial irrigation is also practised by means of some of the smaller streams, especially in North Brabant, Drente and Overysel, and in the absence of streams, canals and sluices are sometimes specially constructed to perform the same service.
A new feature in diking was the construction of dams or sluices across the mouths of rivers, sometimes with important consequences for the villages situated on the spot.
Owing to the shrinkage of the soil in reclaimed lands, however, that is, lands which have been drained after fen or other reclamation, the sides of the polder are often higher than the middle, and it is necessary by means of small dams or sluices to make separate water-tight compartments (afpolderingen), each having its own unit of measurement.
Nearly all the polders of Zeeland and South Holland are able to discharge naturally into the sea at average low water, self-regulating sluices being used.
As the system of impoldering extended, the small sluggish rivers were gradually cut off by dikes from the marshy lands through which they flowed, and by sluices from the waters with which they communicated.
The chosen line of defence is marked by a series of forts which control the sluices, extending from Amsterdam, through Muiden, thence along the Vecht and through Utrecht to Gorinchem (Gorkum) on the Waal.
The Gedenboek uitgeven ter gelegenheid van het fijftig-jarig bestaan van het Koninklijk Instituut van Ingenieurs, 1847-1897 ('s Gravenhage, 1898), is an excellent aid in studying technically the remarkable works on Dutch rivers, canals, sluices, railways and harbours, and drainage and irrigation works.
When a river partakes of the nature of a torrent, dwindling to a paltry stream at one season and swelling into an enormous flood at another, it is impossible to construct a system of irrigation canals without very costly engineering works, sluices, dams, waste-weirs, &c., so as to give the engineer entire control of the water.
Long), at the ends and centre of which is a system of sluices feeding a network of canals.
Then the Band i Mizan and the great bridge were erected across the river and finally a dam was constructed across the Gerger canal, where is now the Pul i Bulaiti, so as to turn back the Karun into its original channel, but a later, by means of sluices and tunnels, the flow of water was regulated in such a manner that two-sixths of the water flowed east and four-sixths west of the town.
In depth closed by sluices at its junction with the river, and reaching the sea at some distance from the natural embouchure.
Powerful sluices protect the inner harbour from the high tides.
Nevertheless it has a certain historical importance, for two reasons - (1) because it marks that period in Longfellow's career when, though he had left nature, he had not yet found art, and (2) because it opened the sluices through which the flood of German sentimental poetry flowed into the United States.
Here, as in ancient Greece and Rome, it is the practice to admit young fish from the sea by sluices, into artificial enclosures or "viviers," and to keep them there until they are large enough to be used.
A gravel bank acted on by such tremendous force crumbled rapidly, and the disintegrated material could be run readily through sluices to the " dumps."
The engineer under whose direction the tower was constructed was Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (born at Dijon on the 15th of December 1832), who had already had a wide experience in the construction of large metal bridges, and who designed the huge sluices for the Panama Canal, when it was under the French company.
For this monsoon irrigation there is always abundance of water, and so long as the canals and sluices are kept in repair, there is little trouble in distributing it over the fields.
The distribution of the water over the whole meadow is regulated by the sluices, which should be placed at the origin of every conductor.
By means of these sluices any portion of the meadow that is desired can be watered, whilst the rest remains dry; and alternate watering must be adopted when there is a scarcity of water.
All the sluices should be substantially built at first with stones and mortar, to prevent the leakage of water; for, should water from a leak be permitted to find its way into the meadow, that portion of it will stagnate and produce coarse grasses.