Nearly 95% were Slovenes and 5% Germans, while 99% of the population belonged to the Roman Catholic Church.
According to nationality, 71.54% were Germans, and 28.39% Slovenes, mostly settled in the districts adjoining the Slovene province of Carniola.
- The " Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes " (Kraljevina Srba Hrvata i Slovenaca), more commonly known as Yugoslavia, came into being in the closing months of 1918 as a result of the collapse of AustriaHungary and the voluntary union of its Yugoslav territories with the former Kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro.
The Slovenes - clericals no less than progressives - became increasingly active in the Yugoslav movement, and their press began to demand the abandonment of the distinctive Slovene dialect as a hindrance to unity..
Among the Slovenes of Istria and Carniola there were also numerous arrests, and the Matica Slovenska, the chief Slovene literary society, was dissolved and its funds confiscated.
This formed a natural complement to the unanimous declaration of the Serbian Skupstina in Dec. 1914 for a union of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in one State.
The jealously guarded secret was discovered by Mr. Supilo in Petrograd within a few days of the signature of the treaty, and the main facts becoming known in Austria-Hungary, were skilfully exploited by her to rally the Croats and Slovenes in defence of their national territory.
It was easy to represent the Entente as having betrayed the interests of Serbia and her kinsmen: and as for a time the Pasic Cabinet, in deference to the narrowly Orthodox influences then all powerful at Petrograd, was prepared to limit its claims to the mainly Serb and Orthodox provinces of Bosnia and Slavonia, and to leave the Catholic Croats and Slovenes to their fate, there was during the summer a certain revulsion of feeling in favour of Austria-Hungary, who appointed a Serb Orthodox frontiersman (Granicar), General Boroevic, to the chief command on the Isonzo front.
After affirming that the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes constitute a single nation and appealing to the right of self-determination, it declared in favour of complete national unity under the Karagjorgjevic dynasty, " a constitutional democratic and parliamentary monarchy, equality of the three national names and flags, of the Cyrilline and Latin alphabets, and of the Orthodox Catholic and Mussulman religions, equal rights for all citizens, universal suffrage in parliamentary and municipal life, and the freedom of the Adriatic to all nations."
During 1918, the initiative among the Yugosla y s of the Monarchy fell more and more into the hands of the Slovenes, led by Father Korosec since the premature death of Monsignor Krek.
The Serbian army was also allowed to occupy the Backa, Syrmia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, but no territory farther west: and for a moment it seemed as though an attempt was being made to leave the Croats and Slovenes to their fate and to form an aggrandized Serbia on the lines advocated by Pasic and Petrograd in the summer of 1915.
Nor was it very easy for the Serbs and Croats to show moderation toward Italy, without appearing to desert the Slovenes, at whose expense, for obvious geographical reasons, the main amputations must inevitably take place.
Special linguistic and other privileges were assured to the Italian minority in the Dalmatian towns, but no corresponding charter was granted to the four to five hundred thousand Slovenes and Croats annexed to Italy.
The fact that many Slovenes voted against Yugoslavia was largely due to a desire to escape from all military service.
But though he was thus able to carry the first reading of the new constitution by 227 to 93 votes, he was faced by the passive resistance of the great majority of Croats and Slovenes, who regarded with suspicion his " Great Serbian " and centralizing aims. It is significant that Protic, hitherto Pasic's most intimate associate, withdrew from the Radical party and from Parliament rather than sanction a constitution so inimical to provincial interests: while Trumbic, the foremost advocate of full national unity, recorded his vote against it.
Barac, Croats and Slovenes Friends of the Entente (1919, contains important original documents); The Southern Slav Library (8 pamphlets published by the Yugoslav Committee 1915-8).
In 1900 the population included 1,386,115 persons of German nationality, 102,974 Czechs and Slovaks, 4346 Poles, 805 Ruthenians, 1329 Slovenes, 271 Serbo-Croatians, and 1368 Italians, all Austrian subjects.
It had in 1900 a population of 178,672, of which 77% were Italians, 18% Slovenes and 5% Germans.
Ban Jellacic, though loyal to the Emperor, had given expression to their aspirations towards unity as early as 1848; but Francis Joseph handed over the Croats and Serbs to Magyar domination (1867), and Dalmatia, the territory of the Austrian Croats, had been neglected by Vienna for years past; thus it was not till the years immediately preceding the war that it was rapidly developed by the construction of ports and railways and the encouragement of tourist traffic. The Slovenes, who inhabited Carinthia and Carniola, had less grounds for discontent, for the barren Karst had been afforested at the expense of the state; but though they were at the very gate of Serbia, they suffered from a shortage of meat, for Hungary obstructed the traffic in livestock in the interests of her great territorial magnates, and Austria bore the brunt of this.
As regards the several nationalities: among the Czechoslovaks in 1910 the percentage was 2.4; a little higher among the Germans (3.1) in consequence of the difficulties of school attendance in the Alpine territories; among the Italians 10.0, and among the Slovenes 14.7.
But now the smaller nations also made their voices heard: the Ruthenians, Slovenes and Italians.
The Czechs and the Slovaks, or, to give them their united name, the Czechoslovaks, are a branch of the great Slav family of which the Russians are the most numerous and the most important member and to which the Serbo-Croats with the Slovenes, the Poles, the Bulgarians and the Wends of Germany also belong.
According to nationality about two-thirds were Slovenes, and the remainder Italians, with only about 2200 Germans.
About 590 the district was settled by the Slovenes, or Corutanes, a Slavonic people, who formed part of the kingdom of Samo, and were afterwards included in the extensive kingdom of the Avars.
The Franks claimed some authority over this people, and probably some of the princes of the Slovenes had recognized this claim, but it could not be regarded as serious while the Avars were in possession of the land.
Politically, the principle underlying the agreement was that the empire should be divided into two portions; in one of these the Magyars were to rule, in the other the Germans; in either section the Slav races - the Serbs and Croatians, the Czechs, Poles and Slovenes - were to be placed in a position of political inferiority.
The southern Sla y s had neither the unity, nor the organization, nor the historical traditions of the Czechs and Poles; but the Slovenes, who formed a large majority of the population in Carniola, and a considerable minority in the adjoining territory of Carinthia and the south of Styria, demanded that their language should be used for purposes of government and education.
Of late years attempts have been made to turn the Slovenian national movement into this direction, and to attract the Slovenes also towards the Orthodox non-Austrian Slays.
The influence of the Poles was still sufficient to secure considerable concessions to the wishes of the Federalists, since if they did not get what they wished they would leave the House, and the Slovenes, Dalmatians and Tirolese would certainly follow them.
Rejected; the whole of the Polish club, followed by the Tirolese and Slovenes, left the House, which consequently consisted of Ito members - the Germans and German representatives from Bohemia and Moravia.
It was not till 1879 that the Slovenes received the support of the government.
The Slovenes had asked that in the gymnasium at Cilli classes in which instruction was given in Slovenian should be formed parallel to the German classes.
The Slovenes were, however, members of the Hohenwart Club, so Hohenwart and his followers supported the request, which was adopted by the ministry.
59 Stoyalovski Group. 6 Popular Polish Party 3 Slovenes - - 68 7 1 Clerical Slovenes.
Thus Germans were obliged to vote for Germans and Czechs for Czechs; and, though there might be victories of Clerical over Liberal Germans or of Czech Radicals over Young Czechs, there could be no victories of Czechs over Germans, Poles over Ruthenes, or Slovenes over Italians.
Southern Sla y s (Slovenes, Croats, Serbs) Ruthenes.
Old or Russophil Ruthenes Slovenes Clericals.
Pop (1900) 25,432, two-thirds Italians, the remainder mostly Slovenes and Germans.