Tipperary, Ireland, pleasantly situated on undulating ground connecting the Devil's Bit and the Slieve Bloom mountains.
It lies on the northern shore of the beautiful Carlingford Lough; behind it rise the Mourne Mountains, while across the lough are the Carlingford Hills, with Slieve Gullion.
The island is mountainous, the highest points being Slieve Croaghaun (2192 ft.) in the west, and Slievemore (2204 ft.) in the north; the extreme western point is the bold and rugged promontory of Achill Head, and the northwestern and south-western coasts consist of ranges of magnificent cliffs, reaching a height of Boo ft.
The situation of the town is striking, the Newry Mountains and Slieve Gullion on the west, and the Mourne Mountains on the east, enclosing the narrow valley in which it lies.
The general surface of the county is gently undulating and pleasantly diversified; but in the northern extremity, on the borders of Lough Neagh, there is a considerable tract of low, marshy land, and the southern border of the county is occupied by a barren range of hills, the highest of which, Slieve Gullion, attains an elevation of 1893 ft.
It is penetrated by far younger intrusive masses at Slieve Gullion and Forkill.
The summit of Slieve Gullion is crowned by a large cairn, which forms the roof of a singular cavern of artificial construction, probably an early burial-place.
The principal cairns are: one on Colin mountain, near Lisburn; one on Slieve True, near Carrickfergus; and two on Colinward.
It rises in the Slieve Bloom mountains, and flows at first easterly and then almost due south, until, on joining the Suir, it forms the estuary of the south coast known as Waterford Harbour.
The neighbouring country is generally hilly, and Slieve True (1100 ft.) commands a magnificent prospect.
Mountains impinge upon the sea almost over the whole length, sometimes, as in Slieve League (county Donegal), immediately facing it with huge cliffs.
The principal groups, with their highest points, are the Mournes (Slieve Donard, 2796 ft.) and the Wicklow mountains (Lugnaquilla, 3 0 39) on the east; the Sperrins (Sawel, 2240) in the north; the Derryveagh group in the north-west (Errigal, 2466); the many groups or short ranges of Sligo, Mayo and Galway (reaching 1695 ft.
In the Twelve Pins of Connemara); in the south-west those of Kerry and Cork, where in Carrantuohill or Carntual (3414) the famous Macgillicuddy Reeks which beautify the environs of Killarney include the highest point in the island; and north-east from these, the Galtees of Tipperary (3018) and Slieve Bloom, the farthest inland of the important groups.
Lastly, rising in the Slieve Bloom or neighbouring mountains, the Suir, Nore and Barrow follow widely divergent courses to the south to unite in Waterford harbour.
They form an interesting and bleak moorland between Cookstown and Omagh, extending north-eastward into Slieve Gallion in county Londonderry, and consist fundamentally of mica-schist and gneiss, affected by earth-pressures, and invaded by granite near Lough Fee.
The granite invades this " greenrock " series at Slieve Gallion and elsewhere, but is itself pre Devonian.
In Slieve Glah it reaches a height of 1057 ft.
Granite is exposed along its axis from near Newry to Slieve Croob, and again appears at Crossdoney in county Cavan.
The Slieve Bloom Mountains are thus formed of a dome of Old Red Sandstone folded on a core of unconformable Silurian strata; while in several cases the domes are worn through, leaving rings of Old Red Sandstone hills, scarping inwards towards broad exposures of Silurian shales.
The earth-wrinkles of this epoch were turned into a north-easterly direction by the pre-existing Leinster Chain, and the trend of the anticlinal from Limerick to the Slieve' Bloom Mountains, and that of the synclinal of Millstone Grit and CoalMeasures from Cashel through the Leinster coalfield, bear witness to the resistance of this granite mass.
These divisions were: Ulster with Emain Macha as capital, Connaught with Cruachu as residence, north Munster from Slieve Bloom to north Kerry, south Munster from south Kerry to Waterford, and Leinster consisting of the two kingdoms of Tara and Ailinn.