It must be added that the pages on the Slavonic peoples and their relations to the empire are conspicuously insufficient; but it must be taken into account that it was not till many years after Gibbon's death that Slavonic history began to receive due attention, in consequence of the rise of competent scholars among the Sla y s themselves.
Militdrgrenze, Sla y.
The principal towns are Scutari (Albanian Shkoder, with the definite article Shkodr-a), the capital of the vilayet of that name, pop. 32,000; Prizren, 30,000; Iannina (often incorrectly written Ioannina), capital of the southern vilayet, 22,000; Jakova, 12,000; Dibra, 15,000; Prishtina, 11,000; Ipek (Sla y.
The Gulf of Riga and the Baltic belong also to territory which is not inhabited by Sla y s, but by Finnish races and by Germans.
In the 9th century the Sla y s occupied the upper Vistula, the S.
If the Sla y s be subdivided into three branches - the W.
Sla y s occupy, as a compact body, W., central and S.
Still, craniological researches show that, notwithstanding this fact, the Slav type has been maintained with remarkable persistency: Slav skulls ten and thirteen centuries old exhibit the same anthropological features as those which characterize the Sla y s of our own day.
The overwhelming numerical superiority of the Sla y s, and the very great differences in ethnical type, belief and mythology between the IndoEuropean and the Ural-Altaic races, may have contributed to the same end.
In the following year, however, the situation was completely altered, a result due to the growing anti-Polish feeling in the Duma and, more especially, to the support given by the Austrian Sla y s to the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Pirpa; Sla y.
The success of the Hussite raids in Germany gave fresh confidence to the Sla y s of Poland.
Against the Arabs, Sla y s and Bulgarians.
Of the total population 71.36% were Sla y s, who were scarcely distinguishable from their Bohemian neighbours.
The name of Czech, however, is usually reserved for the Bohemians, while the Sla y s of Moravia and West Hungary are called Moravians and Slovacs.
By the Lombards; and these in their turn were soon forced to retire before an overwhelming invasion of Sla y s, who on their settlement there took the name of Moravians (German, Mehranen or Mahren) from the river Morava.
At this period there seemed a strong probability of the junction of the north-western and southeastern Sla y s, and the formation of a great Slavonic power to east of the German empire.
Its central bureau, with departments of the interior, religion and education, finance and justice, was established at Serajevo; and its members were largely recruited among the Austrian Sla y s, who were better able than the Germans to comprehend the local customs and language.
The old Illyrian population was rapidly absorbed or expelled, its Latin institutions being replaced by the autonomous tribal divisions, or Zupanates, of the Sla y s.
Hamburg probably had its origin in a fortress erected in 808 by Charlemagne, on an elevation between the Elbe and Alster, as a defence against the Sla y s, and called Hammaburg because of the surrounding forest (Hamme).
The town, rebuilt after this disaster, was again more than once devastated by invading Danes and Sla y s.
The mark of Meissen was originally a district centring round the castle of Meissen or Misnia on the Middle Elbe, which was built about 920 by the German king Henry I., the Fowler, as a defence against the Sla y s.
As Meissen was relieved from the attacks of the Sla y s by the movement of the German boundary to the east, its prosperity increased.
Throughout the middle ages it was the scene of vigorous struggles between Sla y s, Byzantines, Franks, Turks and Venetians, the chief memorials of which are the ruined strongholds of Mistra near Sparta, Gerald (anc. Geronthrae) and Monemvasia, "the Gibraltar of Greece," on the east coast, and Passava near Gythium.
The Sla y s, the most numerous race after the Magyars, are divided into several groups: the Slovaks, mainly massed in the mountainous districts of northern Hungary; the Ruthenians, established mainly on the slopes of the Carpathians between Poprad and Maramaros Sziget; the Serbs, settled in the south of Hungary from the bend of the Danube eastwards across the Theiss into the Banat; the Croats, overwhelmingly preponderant in Croatia-Slavonia, with outlying settlements in the counties of Zala, Vas and Sopron along the Croatian and Styrian frontier.
Part, in the possession of Sla y s or semi-Sla y s.
This forcible intrusion of a nonAryan race altered the whole history of Europe; but its peculiar significance lay in the fact that it permanently divided the northern from the southern and the eastern from the western Sla y s.
Jellachich, who as a soldier was devoted to the interests of the imperial house, realized that the best way to break the revolutionary power of the Magyars and Germans would be to encourage the Slav national ideas, which were equally hostile to both; to set up against the Dualism in favour at Pest and Vienna the federal system advocated by the Sla y s, and so to restore the traditional Habsburg principle of Divide et impera.
All hope of crushing revolutionary Vienna with Magyar aid was thus at an end, and Jellachich, who on the 10th issued a proclamation to the Croat regiments in Italy to remain with their colours and fight for the common fatherland, was free to carry out his policy of identifying the cause of the southern Sla y s with that of the imperial army.
In the Hungarian diet, which met on the 2nd of July, the influence of the conservative cabinet was wholly overshadowed by that of Kossuth, whose inflammatory orations - directed against the disruptive designs of the Sla y s and the treachery of the Austrian government - precipitated the crisis.
A close observer of the multifarious low life of Hungary, Mikszath has, in his short stories, given a delightful yet instructive picture of all the minor varied phases of the peasant life of the Sla y s, the Palocok, the Saxons, the town artisan.
The period between 1883 and 1903 is the most humiliating in the modern history of the southern Sla y s.
The growing self-confidence of the Austrian Sla y s was shown by the bluntness of their refusal to cooperate with the new Premier, Doctor von Seidler, whose offer of portfolios to their leaders drew from Count Tisza a strong protest in the Hungarian Parliament.
Taylor, The Future of the Southern Sla y s (1916); M.
He is also found confirming his old rival Arnulf in the see of Reims; summoning Adalbero or Azelmus of Laon to Rome to answer for his crimes; judging between the archbishop of Mainz and the bishop of Hildesheim; besieging the revolted town of Cesena; flinging the count of Angouleme into prison for an offence against a bishop; confirming the privileges of Fulda abbey; granting charters to bishoprics far away on the Spanish mark; and, on the eastern borders of the empire, erecting Prague as the seat of an archbishopric for the Sla y s.
The attacks of the Sla y s and Avars upon Thessalonica were heroically repulsed by the inhabitants.
Plauen was probably founded by the Sla y s.
The agricultural Sla y s of the Dnieper and the Oka were reduced to tribute, and before the end of the 7th century the Khazars had annexed the Crimea, had won complete command of the Sea of Azov, and, seizing upon the narrow neck which separates the Volga from the Don, had organized the portage which has continued since an important link in the traffic between Asia and Europe.
The arrival of the Varangians amidst the scattered Sla y s (862) had united them into a nation.
AKKERMAN (in old Sla y.
Triest; Sla y.
Although the Finns are not Sla y s, on topographical grounds mention may here be made of Wainamoinen, the great magician and hero of the Finnish epic Kalevala (" land of heroes ").
Otto marched against them, and in a battle fought on the Lechfeld on the 10th of August 955 the king's troops gained a brilliant victory which completely freed Germany from these invaders; while in the same year Otto also defeated the Sla y s who had been ravaging the Saxon frontier.
In 822 and 823 two great diets were held in the palace, and at the former there were present deputies from the eastern Sla y s, the Avars and the Normans.
Two-thirds of the inhabitants are Germans; the remainder, chiefly found in the valleys of the Drave and Save, are Sla y s (Slovenes).
Towards the end of the 6th century the last-named began to give way to the Sla y s, who ultimately made themselves masters of the entire district.
Styria was included in the conquests of Charlemagne, and was henceforth comprised in the German marks erected against the Avar and the Sla y.
(d) The later middle ages saw many minor migratory movements, such as those accompanying the crusades, the pushing of German colonization among the Sla y s, and the introduction of Flemish weavers into England.
I,151,210 II 1 Czechs, Magyars, Sla y s Bohemia 77,247 01 Hungary 256,347 2.5 Poland 141,908 Rumania 10,377 0.1 Russia 500,797 0 I Total Europe 9,197,014 88.9 3.6 Grand Total 10,339,539 Total Swiss-Switzerland Greeks-Greece Turks-Turkey Europe, not specified 135,736 7,325 3,411 294 North America All other countries 77 6, 071 7.5 366,454 100 0 1'4 4.8 9.5 A very important transformation has taken place in the proportionate number coming from different countries during the last half of the 19th century.
Subsequently the Sla y s were cut off from relations with Taurida by the Mongols, and only made occasional raids, such as that of the Lithuanian prince Olgierd.
Ushkiib, Sla y.
On his father's death in 912 he became duke of Saxony, which he ruled with considerable success, defending it from the attacks of the Sla y s and resisting the claims of the German king Conrad I.
Charlemagne's wars in Italy, Spain and Saxony formed part of the common epic material, and there are references to his wars against the Sla y s; but especially he remained in the popular mind as the great champion of Christianity against the creed of Mahomet, and even his Norman and Saxon enemies became Saracens in current legend.
18; Sla y.
The people of Saxony are chiefly of pure Teutonic stock; a proportion are Germanized Sla y s, and to the south of Bautzen there is a large settlement of above 50,000 Wends, who retain their peculiar customs and language.
By the treaty of Verdun in 843 Saxony fell to Louis the German, but he paid little attention to the northern part of his kingdom which was harassed by the Normans and the Sla y s.
Liudolf, who is sometimes called " duke of the East Saxons," carried on a vigorous warfare against the Sla y s and extended his influence over other parts of Saxony.
The Sla y s were driven back, the domestic policy of Henry the Fowler was continued, the Saxon court became a centre of learning visited by Italian scholars, and in 968 an archbishopric was founded at Magdeburg for the lands east of the Elbe.