BOVIDAE, the name of the family of hollow-horned ruminant mammals typified by the common ox (Bos taurus), and specially characterized by the presence on the skulls of the males or of both sexes of a pair of bony projections, or cores, covered in life with hollow sheaths of horn, which are never branched, and at all events after a very early stage of existence are permanently retained.
Spaniels are heavily built dogs with short and very wide skulls rising suddenly at the eyes.
Although it has received a distinct name, Bos (Bibos) frontalis, there can be little doubt that the gayal is merely a domesticated breed of the gaur, many gayal-skulls showing characters approximating to those of the gaur.
In the aeneolithic necropolis of Anghelu Ruju, near Alghero, of 63 skulls, 53 belong to the" Mediterranean " dolico-mesocephalic type and i o to a Eurasian brachycephalic type of Asiatic origin, which has been found in prehistoric tombs of other parts of Europe.
Since his time the anthropological researches of Broca, Thurnam and Davis, Huxley, Busk, Beddoe, Virchow, Tubino and others have proved the existence in Europe, from Neolithic times, of a race, small of stature, with long or oval skulls, and accustomed to bury their dead in tombs.
Still, craniological researches show that, notwithstanding this fact, the Slav type has been maintained with remarkable persistency: Slav skulls ten and thirteen centuries old exhibit the same anthropological features as those which characterize the Sla y s of our own day.
In 1849 she writes from Berri to a political friend: " You thought that I was drinking blood from the skulls of aristocrats.
A good deal of anthropometric investigation has been devoted to human remains of the Aegean epoch, especially to skulls and bones found in Crete in tombs of Period II.
Many important differences are also recorded between the skulls of the two animals, and it is especially noteworthy that the last lower molar is smaller in the wild than in the tame race.
Mastiffs are powerful, heavily built dogs, with short muzzles, frequently protruding lower jaws, skulls raised above the eyes, ears erect or pendulous, pendulous upper lips, short coats and thin tails.
Almost nothing is actually known of prehistoric Cuba; and a few skulls and implements are the only basis existing for conjecture.
Their heaps of reindeer horns and skulls - memorials of religious ceremonies - are exactly similar to those dating from the similar period of civilization in N.
With the skulls of those whom he had slain he built a temple to his father.
The skulls dug up in Scythic graves throw no light on the question, some being round and some long.
The scope of the archaeologist's studies must include every department of the ancient history of man as preserved in antiquities of whatever character, be they tumuli along the Baltic, fossil skulls and graven bones from the caves of France, the flint implements, pottery, and mummies of Egypt, tablets and bas-reliefs from Mesopotamia, coins and sculptures of Greece and Rome, or inscriptions, waxen tablets, parchment rolls, and papyri of a relatively late period of classical antiquity.
Uintatheres were huge creatures, with long narrow skulls, of which the elongated facial portion carried three pairs of bony horn-cores, probably covered with short horns in life, the hind-pair being much the largest.
In Egypt must, on the other hand, have been subsequent to 460 B.C., since he saw the skulls of the Persians slain by Inarus in that year.
The latter was a gigantic animal, especially during the Pleistocene period; the skulls and limbbones discovered in the brick-earths and gravels of the Thames valley and many other parts of England having belonged to animals that probably stood six feet at the shoulder.
The island is visited periodically by a few Samoyedes; they formerly considered it sacred, and some of their sacrificial piles, consisting of drift-wood, deer's horns and the skulls of bears and deer, have been observed by travellers.
In ' For results of a comparison of the skulls of wild and domesticated turkeys, see Dr Shufeldt, in Journ.
High, was built of their skulls and other bones.
Such a generalization will become sounder, if, as is now generally done by anthropologists, the Eskimo with their pyramidal skulls, dull complexion and flat noses are removed into a division by themselves.
Measurements of their skulls show them mesocephalic (index about 78), or intermediate between the dolichocephalic and brachycephalic types of mankind.
Of the long Aztec migration seem historical, and the map of Mexico still shows the names of several settlements recorded in the curious migration map, published by Gemelli Careri (Giro deli mondo, Venice, 1728) and commented on by Humboldt; among, these local names are Tzompanco, " place of skulls," now Zumpango in the north of the Mexican valley, and Chapultepec,.
It was his taste to preserve the skulls of the enemies he had killed - those of the meaner men to be used as flower-pots, while those of the princes were kept in special chests.
Stangeri, allied in the characters of their skulls to the undermentioned Xerus, and with a very large pre-orbital foramen in the more typical forms. The third, Funisciurus, of which F.
The second section, Castoroidea, of the present group includes only the family Castoridae, represented by the beavers, which are large aquatic rodents characterized by their massive skulls, devoid of post-orbital processes, with the angle of the lower jaw rounded, the molars rootless or semi-rooted, with re-entering enamel-folds, and one pair of premolars above and below.
The skull is sub-brachycephalic in type, with an index of 82.6 from living " specimens " and 79 from a large collection of skulls; it is never prognathous.
Inschriften (Leipzig, 1893), Egyptological Researches (Washington, 1906); for measurements of Egyptian skulls, Miss Fawcett in Biometrika (1902); A.
From deposits of the same age in Greece, Samos and elsewhere have been obtained skulls and other remains of Palaeotragus or Samotherium, a ruminant closely allied to Ocapia, the males of which were armed with a very similar pair of dagger-shaped horns.
Physically they are quite distinct from the normal type, also found at Gezer, which was taller, of stronger build, with well-developed skulls, and is akin both to the Sinaitic and Palestinian type illustrated upon Egyptian monuments from c. 3000 B.C., and to the modern native.
The subsequent discovery of two other skulls, almost identical in form, at Spy in Belgium, have helped to prove its typical character.
The interior is dotted with infrequent villages inhabited by Dusuns or by Muruts, a village ordinarily consisting of a single long hut divided up into cubicles, one for the use of each family, opening out on to a common verandah along which the skulls captured by the tribe are festooned.
Kali, on the other hand, the most terrible of the goddess's forms, has a special service performed to her, at the Kali-puja, during the darkest night of the succeeding month; when she is represented as a naked black woman, four-armed, wearing a garland of heads of giants slain by her, and a string of skulls round her neck, dancing on the breast of her husband (Mahakala), with gaping mouth and protruding tongue; and when she has to be propitiated by the slaughter of goats, sheep and buffaloes.
In what may be called his fourth and last period, Wagner became anthropologist and archaeologist, occupied himself with the cabinet of skulls in the Gottingen museum collected by Blumenbach and with the excavation of prehistoric remains, corresponded actively with the anthropological societies of Paris and London, and organized, in co-operation with the veteran K.
The spot where he was seized at Barn, when mounting his horse, was marked by a pyramid, formed, by order of his revengeful enemy, of the skulls of the most faithful of his adherents.
But it is far more probable that they are the same in origin as the dark race south of them and the tall fair race north of them, and that the broadness of their skulls is simply due to their having been long domiciled in mountainous regions.
To bring this to the reader's notice, top and side views of three skulls, as placed together in the human development series in the Oxford University Museum, are represented in the plate, for the purpose of showing the great size of the orbital ridges, which the reader may contrast with his own by a touch with his fingers on his forehead.
The foreheads of these two skulls have an ape-like form, obvious on comparison with the simian skulls of the gorilla and other apes, and visible even in the smallscale figures in the Plate, fig.
Images came crowding on his mind faster than he could put them into words, quagmires and pits, steep hills, dark and horrible glens, soft vales, sunny pastures, a gloomy castle, of which the courtyard was strewn with the skulls and bones of murdered prisoners, a town all bustle and splendour, like London on the Lord Mayor's Day, and the narrow path, straight as a rule could make it, running on up hill and down hill, through city and through wilderness, to the Black River and the Shining Gate.
At Gezer no definite altar was discovered in the great High Place; though it is possible that a bank of intensely hard compact earth, in which were embedded a large number of human skulls, took its place.
Brief reference may also be made to the morphological importance of extraordinary length or shortness in the skulls of mammals - dolichocephalism and brachycephalism; both these features being apparently characteristic of specialized types, the former condition being (as in the horse) often, although not invariably, connected with length of limb and neck, and adaptation to speed, while brachycephalism may be correlated with short limbs and an abbreviated neck.
There is a good chemical laboratory as well as adequate zoological, ethnographical and mineralogical collections, the most remarkable being Blumenbach's famous collection of skulls in the anatomical institute.
In the alpine tracts of the Tian-shan, on the borders of the Pamir, their horns and skulls are frequently met with, but there the place of the species is now taken by Ovis karelini.
As in fishes also, the sensory canal system must have been highly developed on the skulls of many labyrinthodonts, and the impressions left by these canals have been utilized by morphologists for homologizing the various elements of the cranial roof with those of Crossopterygians.