By the Siwalik hills, which separate it from Saharanpur district, and on the W.
By the Siwalik hills.
The Himalayas in the north of the district attain a height between 7000 and 8000 ft., one peak reaching an elevation of 8565 ft.; the highest point of the Siwalik range is 3041 ft.
The principal passes through the Siwalik hills are the Timli pass, leading to the military station of Chakrata, and the Mohand pass leading to the sanatoriums of Mussoorie and Landaur.
Meanwhile the researches of Hugh Falconer (1808-1865) and of Proby Thomas Cautley (1802-1871) in the sub-Himalayas brought to light the marvellous fauna of the Siwalik hills of India, published in Fauna antiqua Sivalensis (London, 1845) and in the volumes of Falconer's individual researches.
It bears, indeed, very much the same relation to the Alps that the Siwalik beds of India bear to the Himalayas.
Possibly this Russian camel (Procamelus khersonensis), as it is called, may form the connecting link between the typical Procamelus of North America and the fossil camel (Camelus sivalensis) of the Siwalik Hills of India.
South of the Himalayas, from which it is separated by valleys or duns, is the Siwalik range, which slopes down to the fruitful plain of the Doab (two rivers), a large irregular horn-shaped tongue of land enclosed between the Ganges and Jumna.
The nearest allies of the anoa appear to be certain extinct buffaloes, of which the remains are found in the Siwalik Hills of northern India.
It was, therefore, during the Miocene period that the elevation of this part of the chain began, while the disturbance of the Siwalik-like sandstone indicates that the folding continued into the Pliocene period.
The sub-Himalaya are formed of Tertiary beds, chiefly Siwalik or upper Tertiary, while the lower Himalaya proper consist mainly of pre-Tertiary rocks without fossils.
But the fault is more than an ordinary reversed fault: it was, nearly everywhere, the northern boundary of deposition of the Siwalik beds, and only in a few instances do any of the Siwalik deposits extend even to a short distance beyond it.
The fault in fact was being formed during the deposition of the Siwalik beds, and as the beds were laid down, the Himalaya were pushed forward over them, the Siwaliks themselves being folded and upturned during the process.
Recent; d =Upper Siwalik conglomerates c =J,fiddle Siwalik sandstones; b=Lower (Nahan) siwalik.s; a .
The Siwalik fossils contain 84 species of mammals of 45 genera, the whole bearing a marked resemblance to the Miocene fauna of Europe, but containing a larger number of genera still existing, especially of ruminants, and now held to be of Pliocene age.