Of Angora, near the head of a narrow valley through which the Angora-Sivas road runs.
TOKAT (Armenian Evtoghia, anc. Dazimon) the chief town of a sanjak of the same name in the Sivas vilayet of Asia Minor.
It is situated in the Sivas-Samsun chausee, altitude 2280 ft., at the mouth of a rocky glen which opens out to the broad valley of the Tozanli Su, a tributary of the Yeshil Irmak.
Wide, and is crossed by a ferry (altitude, 2 4 25 ft.), on the Sivas-Kharput road.
It then runs west, south and east round the rock-mass of Musher Dagh, and receives (right) the Kuru Chai, down which the Sivas-Malatia road runs, and the Tokhma Su, from Gorun (Gauraina) and Darende.
As early as 1100 Bohemund was captured in battle by Danishmend of Sivas; and it was his captivity, depriving the patriarch as it did of Norman assistance, which allowed the uncontested accession of Baldwin I.
But each of the three sections of their army was routed in turn in Asia Minor by the princes of Sivas, Aleppo and Harran, in the middle of I ror; and only a few escaped to report the crushing disaster.
Thus, although Alexius had been able, in the wake of the crusading armies, to recover a large belt of land round the whole coast of Asia Minor, - the interior remaining subject to the sultans of Konia (Iconium) and the princes of Sivas, - he left the territories to the east of the western boundary of Cilicia in the hands of the Latins when he died in 1118.
These duties vary in different parts of the empire: in the vilayets of Constantinople, Bagdad and Adrianople, and in the sanjaks of Bigha and Tchataljatheday'sworkis calculated at 5 piastres (about 11d.); in the vilayets of Aleppo, Trebizond, Angora, lannina, Konia, Sivas and Kastamuni at 4 piastres (about 9d.); and in most other parts of the empire at 3 piastres (about 7d.).
Bayezid now consolidated his Asiatic dominions by the capture of Kaisarieh, Sivas and Tokat from Tatar invaders, the relics of Jenghiz Khan's hordes.
The tone of the demand offended Bayezid, who rejected it in terms equally sharp. As a result Timur's countless hordes attacked and took Sivas, plundering the town and massacring its inhabitants.
AMASIA (anc. Amasia), the chief town of a sanjak in the Sivas vilayet of Asia Minor and an important trade centre on the Samsun-Sivas road, beautifully situated on the Yeshil Irmak (Iris).
It was taken by the Danishmand Amirs of Sivas early in the 12th century, and passed to the Turks in 1 393.
Crossing the Taurus he travelled on by Sivas of Cappadocia to Erzerum, the neighbourhood of Ararat and Tabriz.
The chief towns in the interior were Amasia, on the Iris, the birthplace of Strabo, the capital of Mithradates the Great, and the burial-place of the earlier kings, whose tombs still exist; Comana, higher up the river, a famous centre of the worship of the goddess Ma (or Cybele); Zela, another great religious centre, refounded by Pompey, now Zilch; Eupatoria, refounded by Pompey as Magnopolis at the junction of the Lycus and Iris; Cabira, Pompey's Diospolis, afterwards Neocaesarea, now Niksar; Sebastopolis on the Scylax, now Sulu Seral; Sebasteia, now Sivas; and Megalopolis, a foundation of Pompey, somewhere in the same district.
It is connected by metalled roads with Sivas and Kaisarieh, and by sea with Constantinople.
It is a thriving town, and the outlet for the trade of the Sivas vilayet.
BLASIUS (or [[Blaise), Saint]], bishop of Sebaste or' Sivas in Asia Minor, martyred under Diocletian on the 3rd of February 316.
A carriage-road leads to Trebizond, and other roads to Sivas, Karahissar, Erzerum and Kharput.
In 1100 he was captured by Danishmend of Sivas, and he languished in prison till 1103.
As the crusaders marched by way of Dorylaeum and Iconium towards Antioch, the Greeks subdued the Turkish amirs residing at Smyrna, Ephesus, Sardis, Philadelphia, Laodicea, Lampes and Polybotus; 1 and Kilij Arslan, with his Turks, retired to the north-eastern parts of Asia Minor, to act with the Turkish amirs of Sivas (Sebaste), known under the name of the Danishmand.
They took possession of Sivas, Tokat, Niksar, Ablastan, Malatia, probably after the death of Suleiman, though they may have established themselves in one or more of these cities much earlier, perhaps in 1071, after the defeat of Romanus Diogenes.
Soon afterwards the sultan died (1219) and was succeeded by his brother, Ala ud-din Kaikobad I., the most powerful and illustrious prince of this branch of the Seljuks, renowned not only for his successful wars but also for his magnificent structures at Konia, Alaja, Sivas and elsewhere, which belong to the best specimens of Saracenic architecture.
But, as they crossed the border, Kaikhosrau marched against them, and suffered a formidable defeat at Kuzadag (between Erzingan and Sivas), in 1243, which forced him to purchase peace by the promise of a heavy tribute.
Masud, the son of Izz ed-din, who on the death of his father had fled from the Crimea to the Mongol khan and had received from him the government of Sivas, Erzingan and Erzerum during the lifetime of Kaikhosrau III., ascended the Seljuk throne on the death of Kaikhosrau.
There is more than one meaning of Sivas discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
It is connected with Sivas by a chaussee, prolonged to the Euphrates.
(c) South of Sivas a line of bare hills connects this chain with another range of high forest-clad mountains, which loses itself southwards in the main mass of Taurus, and is held to be the true Anti-Taurus by geographers.
With the exception of Sivas, no town of importance lies in the valley of the Kizil Irmak throughout its course of over 600 in.
The apple, pear, cherry and plum thrive well in the north; the orange, lemon, citron and sugar-cane in the south; styrax and mastic in the south-west; and the wheat lands of the Sivas vilayet can hardly be surpassed.
Turkish and Zaza-speaking Kurds (see Kurdistan) are found in the Angora and Sivas vilayets.
8 Konia, 9 Trebizond, 10 Sivas, 11 Adana.
Sivas, Asia Minor (Vilayet) >>
MARSIVAN, or Merzifun (anc. Phazemon ?), a town in the Amasia sanjak of the Sivas vilayet of Asia Minor, situated at the foot of the Tayshan Dagh.