The first European visitors to the territory now embraced in the state of Minnesota found it divided between two powerful Indian tribes, the Ojibways or Chippewas, who occupied the heavily wooded northern portion and the region along the Mississippi river, and the Sioux or Dakotas, who made their homes on the more open rolling country in the south and west and in the valley of the Minnesota.
The first known white explorers were Radisson and Groseilliers, who spent the winter of1658-1659among the Sioux in the Mille Lacs region.
In a large Sioux village.
The settlements bordering on the Indian reservations had experienced more or less trouble with the Sioux for several years, the most serious outbreak having occurred in March 1857, when Ink-pa-du-ta led his band to massacre the settlers at Spirit Lake.
Suddenly towards the end of August, as if by previous understanding (although nothing of the sort was ever proved), small bands of Sioux scattered along the frontier for 200 m.
Heard, History of the Sioux War and the Massacres of 1862 and 1863 (New York, 1864); Charles S.
Murch, A History' of the Great Massacre by the Sioux Indians in Minnesota (Cincinnati„ 1864); and S.
Foot, " The Sioux Indian War," in Iowa Historical' Record, vols.
When first encountered about 1640 the Ojibway were inhabiting the coast of Lake Superior, surrounded by the Sioux and Foxes on the west and south.
By the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers, which separate it from Nebraska and South Dakota.
From the mouth of the Big Sioux river, extends a line of mound-like bluffs usually free from rocks, but rising abruptly from the flood plain of the Missouri to a height varying from TOO to 300 ft, A broad water-parting extending from Spirit lake, on the northern border, nearly S.
The largest centres of industry are Sioux City, Davenport, Dubuque,Des Moines,Burlington and Council Bluffs.
The chief cities are Des Moines (pop. in 1905, 75,626), Dubuque (41,941), Davenport (39,797), Sioux City (40,952), Cedar Rapids (28,759), Council Bluffs (25,231) and Burlington (25,318).
Pleasant; Penn College (Friends, 1873) at Oskaloosa; St Joseph's College (Roman Catholic, 1873) at Dubuque; Parsons College (Presbyterian, 1875) at Fairfield; Coe College (Presbyterian, 1881) at Cedar Rapids; Drake University (Disciples of Christ, 1881) at Des Moines; Palmer College (Disciples of Christ, 1889) at Legrand; Buena Vista College (Presbyterian, 1891) at Storm Lake; Charles City College (Methodist Episcopal, 1891) at Charles City; Morningside College (Methodist Episcopal, 1894) at Sioux City; Graceland College (Reorganized Church of Latter Day Saints, 1895) at Lamoni.
The derivation of Assiniboia is from two Ojibway words, assini meaning a stone, and the termination "to cook by roasting"; from these came a name first applied to a Dakota or Sioux tribe living on the Upper Red river; afterwards when this tribe separated from the Dakotas, its name was given to the branch of the Red river which the tribe visited, the river being known as the Assiniboine and the tribe as Assiniboin.
P Y groups: - Eskimo, on Arctic shores; Dene (Tinneh), in north-western Canada; Algonquin-Iroquois, Canada and eastern United States; Sioux, plains of the west; Muskhogee, Gulf States; Tlinkit-Haida, North Pacific coast; Salish-Chinook, Fraser-Columbia coasts and basins; Shoshoni, interior basin; California-Oregon, mixed tribes; Pueblo province, southwestern United States and northern Mexico; Nahuatla-Maya, southern Mexico and Central America; Chibcha-Kechua, the Cordilleras of South America; Carib-Arawak, about Caribbean Sea; Tupi-Guarani, Amazon drainage; Araucanian, Pampas; Patagonian, peninsula; Fuegian, Magellan Strait.
The Eskimo underground houses of sod Hablta- and snow, the Dene (Tinneh) and Sioux bunch of bark.
Of Agriculture.) Excepting for extensive and rapid travel over the snow in the Arctic regions by means of dog sleds, the extremely limited transportation by dog travail (or sledge) in the Sioux province, and the use of the llama as a beast of burden Travel.
The Eskimo engraved poorly, the Dene (Tinneh) embroidered in quill, the North Pacific tribes carved skilfully in horn, slate and cedar, the California tribes had nimble fingers for basketry, the Sioux gloried in feathers and painted parfleche.
The Sioux and the Muskhogee province is the mound area, which extends also into Canada along the Red river.
Cabinet (1,020,960 acres), Custer (590,720 acres), Deerlodge (I, 080,220 acres), Flathead (2,092,785 acres), Gallatin (907,160 acres), Helena (930,180 acres), Jefferson (1, 2 55,3 20 acres), Kootenai (1,661,260 acres), Lewis and Clark (844,136 acres), Lolo (1,211,680 acres), Madison (1,102,860 acres), Missoula (1,237,509 acres) and Sioux (145,253 acres in Montana; 104,400 acres in SouthDakota).
The Indians are mostly members of the following tribes: the Piegan, the Crow, the Salish (or Flathead), the Sioux, the Assiniboin, the Arapaho Atsina (miscalled Grosventres) and the Northern Cheyenne.
The Piegans, with small remnants of a few other tribes, numbering (1900) about 2060, occupy the Blackfeet reservation in the north-west of Teton county, the Crows, numbering 1857, occupy the Crow reservation in the south central part of the state; the Salish, with small remnants of the Pend Oreille, the Spokan, the Lower Kalispell and the Kutenai, numbering 1837, occupy the Flathead reservation in the north of Missoula and the south of Flathead county; Assiniboins and others of Sioux stock, numbering about 1793, occupy Fort Peck reservation in the south-east of Valley county: Atsina and Assiniboins, numbering about 1429, occupy Fort Belknap reservation in the east of Chouteau county; and the Northern Cheyennes, numbering about 1357, occupy Northern Cheyenne reservation in the south-east of Rosebud county.
Treaties and military operations were at first of no avail, but in 1876 the United States government took steps to reduce them to submission, and Generals George Crook (1828-1890), Alfred Howe Terry (1827-1890) and John Gibbon (1827-1896), with 2700 troops (besides the Crow scouts) were sent against the Sioux under Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse and others.
Custer was sent up the Rosebud, and on the morning of the 25th passed over the divide of the Little Big Horn, where the Sioux were soon discovered.
Continuing a few miles down stream, he came upon what was supposed to be a single Sioux village; the Indians, however, proved to number from 8000 to 10,000, including 2500 to 3000 warriors.
Lake Traverse and the Big Stone Lake separate the state in part from Minnesota; the Big Sioux River forms most of the boundary between South Dakota and Iowa; and the Missouri river separates the state in part from Nebraska.
South and west of the Coteau des Prairies lie vast stretches of plains, including the valleys of the Big Sioux and James rivers.
To its junction with the Big Sioux river separates South Dakota from Nebraska.
The Big Sioux river rises in the Coteau des Prairies in the north-east and flows almost directly south for a distance of 300 m., in the lower part of its course forming the boundary between South Dakota and Iowa.
Wide, whose waters flow north into the Bois de Sioux river, whence they flow into the Red River (of the North).
It is usually greatest in the valleys of the James and Big Sioux rivers and least in the extreme north-central and north-western parts of the state.
Sioux Falls is the principal industrial centre.
Between Sioux City and Fort Benton, Montana, but the constant shifting of the channel makes navigation uncertain.
In 1900 there were seven cities having 3000 or more inhabitants: Sioux Falls with 10,266; Lead, 6210;6210; Yankton, 4125; Aberdeen, 4087; Mitchell, 40J5; Deadwood, 3498; and Waterton, 3352.1 1 In 1905, according to a state census, there were nine cities with 3000 or more inhabitants, showing some changes in order of size: In 1906 the total number of communicants of different religious denominations in the state was 161,951, of whom 61,014 were Roman Catholics, 45,018 Lutherans, 16,143 Methodists, 8599 Congregationalists, 7055 Protestant Episcopalians, 6990 Presbyterians and 6198 Baptists.
The judicial department consists of the supreme court, circuit courts, county courts, justices of the peace, and police Sioux Falls, 12,283; Lead, 8052; Aberdeen, 5841; Mitchell, 5719; Watertown, 5164;5164; Deadwood, 4364; Yankton, 4189; Huron, 3783;3783; Brookings, 3265.
An act of 1907, ratified by popular vote in the election of 1908, raised the term of residence under which a person could apply for divorce from six months to one year, and provided that all cases should be tried openly at the regular term of court; and since the passage of this law Sioux Falls has ceased to be notorious for its divorce colony from other states.
The Norwegian Lutherans have a normal school at Sioux Falls, and the Roman Catholics have schools of higher grade at Sioux Falls, Deadwood and Aberdeen.
Charitable Institutions, &c. - The state maintains a school for the blind at Gary, a school for deaf mutes at Sioux Falls, a tuberculosis sanatorium at Custer, a general hospital for the insane at Yankton, a school for the feeble-minded at Redfield, a soldiers' home at Hot Springs, a reform school at Plankinton, and a penitentiary at Sioux Falls.
A children's home at Sioux Falls is partly under state control.
A settlement was made at Sioux Falls in 1856, but was abandoned about six years afterwards.
A railway (part of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul system) was built from Sioux City to Yankton in 1872-1873, and in 1874 General Custer led an exploring expedition into the Black Hills, which resulted in the discovery of gold and the rapid settlement of a considerable portion of the west of the territory.
A movement was at once begun to break up the great Sioux reservation, partly because it cut off this region from the older settlements east of the Missouri and partly because it contained a large amount of land which was very valuable for farming and grazing purposes.
About 5 6, 5 60 acres of Lower Brule lands were opened for settlement in 1889, about 1,600,000 acres of Sisseton and Wahpeton lands' in 1892, 168,000 acres of the Yankton Sioux lands in 1895, 416,000 acres of the Rosebud lands in 1904, and 800,000 acres in 1908.
The inhabitants of the south of the territory held a convention at Sioux Falls in 1885, adopted a state constitution on the 3rd of November, and applied for admission into the Union.
In accordance with the Enabling Act, which received the President's approval on the 22nd of February 1889, a convention met at Sioux Falls on the 4th of the following July and re-adopted, with some slight verbal changes, the constitution of 1885.
On the 3rd of September 1863 with 1200 men he routed 2000 Sioux near the present town of Ellendale, in Dickey county, in an engagement called the battle of White Stone Hills.
In 1864 Sully defeated the Sioux at the battle of Takaakwta, or Deer Woods, on the Knife river, and a few days later he again encountered them, and after a desperate struggle of three days administered a crushing defeat; the warriors abandoned their provisions and escaped into the Bad Lands.
"The Sioux say that the thunder is the sound of the cloud-bird flapping his wings."
Of the city is the grave of War Eagle, a Sioux chief.