The determination in the case of solids lighter than water is effected by the introduction of a sinker, i.e.
Nitzsch, Dillmann, Ritschl and Sinker are convinced that the book was not a translation but was written originally in Greek.
Long and are interposed between the heavy iron augerstem carrying the bit and the upper rod, known as the sinker-bar.
The men now take hold of the bull-wheels and draw up the slack until the sinker-bar rises, the ' play ' of the jars allowing it to come up 13 in.
If now the vertical movement of the walking-beam be 24 in., when 'it starts on the up-stroke the sinker-bar rises 4 in., and the cross-heads come together with a smart blow, then the auger-stem is picked up and lifted 20 in.
If W be the weight of the experimental solid in air, w the weight of the sinker in water, and W, the weight of the solid plus sinker in water, then the relative density is given by W/(W+w - Wi).
Second only to the compass in its value to the sailor is Thomson's sounding apparatus, whereby soundings can be taken in 100 fathoms by a ship steaming at 16 knots; and by the employment of piano-wire of a breaking strength of 140 tons per square inch and an iron sinker weighing only 34 lb, with a selfregistering pressure gauge, soundings can be rapidly taken in deep ocean.