It is notable that the heavy trade with Singapore shows a tendency to decrease in favour of direct trade with Europe.
The colony of the Straits Settlements consists of the islands of Singapore, Penang and the Dindings, the territory of Province Wellesley, on the mainland opposite to Penang, the insignificant territory of the Dindings, and the town and territory of Malacca.
Penang was purchased from Kedah in 1786, and Singapore from the then sultan of Johor in 1819.
The Straits Settlements - Singapore, Malacca and Penang - were ruled from India until 1867, when they were erected into a crown colony under the charge of the Colonial Office.
Singapore is the political, commercial and administrative headquarters of the colony of the Straits Settlements, and the governor for the time being is ex officio high commissioner of the Federated Malay States, British North Borneo, Sarawak, the Cocos-Keeling and Christmas Islands, and governor of Labuan.
Clifford, Further India (1904); Journal of the Malay Archipelago, Logan (Singapore); Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (Singapore); Weld, Maxwell, Swettenham and Clifford in the Journal of the Royal Colonial Institute (London); Clifford in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society (London).
In 1894 the Eastern Extension Telegraph Company laid a cable from Singapore to Labuan and Hong Kong, thus duplicating the route and making it an all-British line.
After a short stay at Singapore, whence he despatched several letters to India and Europe, the ship at the end of August 1552 reached Changchuen-shan (St John Island) off the coast of Kwang-tung, which served as port and rendezvous for Europeans, not then admitted to visit the Chinese mainland.
At Singapore the range is less than 5°; and at Batavia in Java, and Galle in Ceylon, it is about the same.
At Singapore and Batavia the thermometer very rarely falls below 70°, or rises above 90°.
At Batavia in Java the fall is about 78 in.; at Singapore it is nearly 100 in.
At the end of the Napoleonic wars Portugal had Macao and Goa, Holland Java, Sumatra and other islands, France some odds and ends in India, while England emerged with Hong Kong, Singapore, Ceylon and a free hand in India.
Taiping (Perak, 1894-1898); John Crawfurd, History of the Indian Archipelago (3 vols., Edinburgh, 1820); Grammar and Dictionary of the Malay Language (2 vols., London, 1852); A Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands and Adjacent Countries (London, 1856); Journal of the Indian Archipelago (12 vols., Singapore, 1847-1862); Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 33 Nos.
(Singapore, 1878-1900); H.
Van der Tuuk, Maleisch-Nederlandisch Woordenboek (Batavia, 1877-1880); Malay Dictionary (Singapore, 1903), Wilkinson.
Hevea brasiliensis was introduced to Ceylon and Singapore from seedlings raised at Kew from Brazilian seed, specially collected by Mr H.
In Europe, Australasia and one large works at Singapore it has been practically replaced by the reverberatory furnace process, first introduced into Cornwall about the year 1700.
The steaming distance from Singapore is 1520 m.
Singapore had a Journal of the Indian Archipelago from 1847 to 1859, and the Chinese Repository (1832-1851) was edited at Carton by Morrison.
Areca-nut Island), the town and island which, after Singapore, form the most important portion of the crown colony of the Straits Settlements.
Two unofficial members of the legislative council of the colony, which holds its sittings in Singapore, are nominated by the governor, with the sanction of the secretary of state for the colonies, to represent Penang.
This is mainly due to the construction of the railway which runs from a point on the mainland opposite to Penang, through the Federated Malay States of Perak, Selangor and the Negri Sembilan to Malacca, and has diverted to other ports and eventually to Singapore much of the coastal traffic which formerly visited Penang.
In 1805 Penang was made a separate presidency, ranking with Bombay and Madras; and when in 1826 Singapore and Malacca were incorporated with it, Penang continued to be the seat of government.
In 1829 Penang was reduced from the rank of a presidency, and eight years later the town of Singapore was made the capital of the Settlements.
See Straits Settlements Blue Book 1906 (Singapore, 1907); The Straits Directory (Singapore, 1907); Sir Frank Swettenham, British Malaya (London, 1906).
A Sukhotai inscription of about 1284 states that the dominions of King Rama Kamheng extended across the country from the Mekong to Pechaburi, and thence down the Gulf of Siam to Ligore; and the Malay annals say that the Siamese had penetrated to the extremity of the peninsula before the first Malay colony from Menangkabu founded Singapore, i.e.
Various disputes between Great Britain and the Netherlands, arising chiefly out of the transfer of power in Java and the British occupation of Singapore (1819), were settled by treaty between the two powers in 1824.
A parallel case of mimicry exists at Singapore between the larva of a Noctuid moth and the common red tree-ant (Oecophylla smaragdina).
An example of the latter occurs in Singapore where the vicious red spinning-ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) is mimicked by the larva of a Noctuid moth and by spiders belonging to two distinct families, namely, Saltiicus plataleoides (Salticidae) and Amyciaea forticeps (Thomisidae), there being no reason to suppose that either the moth larva or the spiders are protected forms. Mimetic aggregations of species similar to those mentioned above have been found in other countries; but the instances cited are sufficient to show how widespread are the influences of mimicry and how profoundly it has modified the insect fauna of various parts of the world.
In the Straits Settlement the foundations of modern missionary effort were laid by the London Missionary Society pioneers who were waiting to get into China; they were succeeded by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (1856), English Presbyterians (1875), Methodist Episcopalians (1884), who have a fine Anglo-Chinese College at Singapore, and the Church of England Zenana Society (1900).
Edi is a centre of the still extensive pepper trade, carried on mainly with the Chinese at Singapore and Penang, which island faces Edi.
Centres of population in Menado are Amurang (3000), the seat of a Dutch controller, and a calling place for the steamers of the Indian Packet Company; Menado (io,000), the chief town of the residency, the principal station of the Dutch missionaries, with a fair amount of trade, but an unsafe roadstead; Tondano (12,000), near the lake and river of the same name, at an altitude of nearly 2000 ft., and one of the chief centres; Gorontalo, one of the most important towns of Celebes, carrying on direct trade with Singapore and Europe.
The mountain sparrow (Passer montana) is abundant in Java and Singapore in a uniform equatorial climate, and also inhabits Britain and a considerable portion of northern Europe.
Belcheri extends its area of distribution from Queensland through Singapore to Japan.
Singapore, where plague has several times been introduced, but never taken hold, is probably quite as dirty and insanitary as Hong-Kong, and it is pertinently remarked by the Bombay Research Committee that filth per se has but little influence, inasmuch as " there occurred in the House of Correction at Byculla, where cleanliness is brought as near to perfection as is attainable, an outbreak which exceeded in severity that in any of the filthy thaw's and tenements around."
The discovery that Borneo produced antimony was made in 1825 by John Crawfurd, the orientalist, who learned in that year that a quantity had been brought to Singapore by a native trader as ballast.
On the rise of Singapore direct trade had been established with Sarawak and Brunei, and it became a matter of moment to British merchants that this traffic should be safe.
A German firm runs vessels at approximately bi-monthly intervals from Singapore to Labuan and thence to Sandakan, calling in on occasion at Jesselton and Kudat en route.
Notes issued by the principal banks in Singapore were made current in North Borneo in Igloo.
Nutmeg and mace are almost exclusively obtained from the Banda Islands, although the cultivation has been attempted with varying success in Singapore, Penang, Bengal, Reunion, Brazil, French Guiana and the West Indies.
The Eastern Extension Telegraph Company has a central station at Labuan with cables to Singapore, HongKong and British North Borneo.
Monthly steam communication is maintained by a German firm between Labuan, Singapore and the Philippines.