AVICENNA [Abu 'Ali al-Husain ibn 'Abdallah ibn Sinai (980-1037), Arabian philosopher, was born at Afshena in the district of Bokhara.
The Jews would have thought that He had returned to Sinai, the holy mountain; and that they were deprived of the temporal blessings which were the gifts of a God who literally dwelt in the midst of his people."
That these places (in the district of Kadesh) were traditionally associated with the origin of the Levites is suggested by various Levitical stories, although it is in a narrative now in a context pointing to Horeb or Sinai that the Levites are Israelites who for some cause (now lost) severed themselves from their people and took up a stand on behalf of Yahweh (Exod.
Professor Marr has lately published an Arabic text from a MS. in Sinai which seems to contain an older tradition.
Nikon was himself tried for abdicating his see, causing disorder in the realm, oppression and violence, first before a synod of Moscow composed of his suffragans and some Greek bishops, and afterwards before another synod in which sat the patriarchs of Alexandria and Antioch, the metropolitans of Servia and Georgia, the archbishops of Sinai and Wallachia, and the metropolitans of Nice, Amasis, Iconium, Trebizond, Varna and Scio, besides the Russian bishops.
The legislation on Mt Sinai (Horeb) which apparently occupies a very important place in tradition (Exod.
I) Moses received on Mount Sinai not only the written Law as set down in the Pentateuch, but also the Oral Law, which he communicated personally to the 70 elders and through them by a "chain of tradition" to succeeding ages.
It has generally been held that Stade's supposition has much to recommend it, that it was derived by Moses from the Kenites, and should be connected with the Sinai-Horeb region.
Several indications favour the view of the connexion in the age of Moses between the Yahweh-cult at Sinai and the moon-worship of Babylonian origin to which the name Sinai points (Sin being the Babylonian moon-god).
In the desert he was worshipped as an atmospheric deity, who manifested himself in thunder and lightning, whose abode was in the sky, whose sanctuary was on the mountain summit of Horeb-Sinai, and whose movable palladium was the ark of the covenant.
Yahweh ceased to be exclusively regarded as god of the atmosphere, worshipped in a distant mountain, Horeb-Sinai, situated in the south country (negebh),and moving in the clouds of heaven before the Israelites in the desert, but he came to be associated with Israel's life in Canaan.
Little, therefore, was possible for the Jew save strict performance of the requirements of the 'Farah, once for all given to Moses on Sinai, and, in his approach to the awful and unknown mystery, to rely on ceremonial and ascetic performances (see Wendt's Teaching of Jesus, i.
A defensive coalition was formed in which the kings of Cilicia, Hamath, the Phoenician coast, Damascus and Ammon, the Arabs of the Syrian desert, and " Ahabbu Sinai " were concerned.
It was at the holy well of Kadesh, in the sacred mounts of Sinai and Horeb, and in the field of Edom that the 1 Cf.
In the south of the Sinaitic peninsula, remains have been found of an elaborate half-Egyptian, half-Semitic cultus (Petrie, Researches in Sinai, xiii.), and not only does Edom possess some reputation for " wisdom," but, where this district is concerned, the old Arabian religion (whose historical connexion with Palestine is still imperfectly known) claims some attention.
Dreams of political freedom gave place to hopes of religious independence, and " Israel " became a church, the foundation of which it sought in the desert of Sinai a thousand years before.
After having spent forty years in a cave at the foot of mount Sinai, he became abbot of the monastery.
60 An interesting discovery of the late period in Upper Egypt, that of images and other temple objects of precious metals, was also made at Dendera by the diggers for natron (sebakh) and recovered by the Service des Antiquites for the Cairo Museum.61 Outside Egypt proper the work of editing and publishing all the Egyptian inscriptions of Sinai has been begun by Dr. Gardiner and Mr. Peet.62 A worthy completion of the record is the wonderful exhibition of all the finest examples of Egyptian art in Britain outside the British and Ashmolean Museums, held by the Burlington Fine Arts' Club in London in the summer of 1921.63
P. 68; (63) Inscriptions of Sinai, I.
(afterwards Lord) Kitchener (1:63,360, 1880), of the Sinai Peninsula by Sir C. W.
When he was restored, after an exile of twenty months, Theodosius fled to Sinai and continued his agitation among the monks there.
The Passover was kept in the first month on the 14th day of the month at even in the wilderness of Sinai; but certain men, unclean by touching a dead body, asked what they should do; they were to keep it on the second month on the 14th day, eating it with unleavened bread and bitter herbs, leaving none of it until the morning, nor breaking a bone.
Thus, it has been held that it contained stone fetishes (meteoric stones and the like) from Yahweh's original abode on Sinai or Horeb.
Hetherington, and which he justified on the singular ground that "the vast bulk of the population believe that morality depends entirely on revelation; and if a doubt could be raised among them that the ten commandments were given by God from Mount Sinai, men would think they were at liberty to steal, and women would consider themselves absolved from the restraints of chastity."
2 In a fragmentary Syriac homily by Mar Jochanis, found in a Sinai MS. written not later than the Loth century and edited by J.
Of Sinai), trousers being considered undignified even for men.
A long plaited lock (or later a lappet) on the side of their head in imitation of the youthful Horus, and the peculiar tonsure adopted by the later Arabs of Sinai was inspired by the desire to copy their god Orotal-Dionysus.'
Aastly, in the northwest the Sinai peninsula has been thoroughly explored, and the list of travellers who have visited the Holy Cities and traversed the main pilgrim routes through Hejaz is a fairly long one, though, owing to the difficulties peculiar to that region, the hydrography of southern Hejaz is still incompletely known.
After a year spent in Egypt and the Sinai peninsula Modern the party reached Jidda towards the end of 1762, and after a short stay sailed on to aohaia in the north of tion in Yemen, the exploration of which formed the principal Yemen.
- Beginning from the north-west, the Sinai peninsula belongs to Egypt, though geographically part of Arabia.
By a line drawn from Ar Rafa, 'a Sinai few miles E.tof El Arish on the Mediterranean, to the head of the Gulf of Akaba; and on the W.
The deep depression of Wadi Feran separates the Tih from the higher mass of Sinai (q.v.), in which J.
In the northern part of Arabia the crystalline rocks form a broad area extending from the peninsula of Sinai eastwards to Hail and southwards at least as far as Mecca.
The Gulf of Akaba is a strip of country which has been let down between two parallel faults, and several similar faulted troughs occur in the Sinai peninsula.
The Egyptian pilgrim route from Cairo, across the Sinai peninsula and down the Midian coast to El Wijh, joins the Syrian route at Badr Hunen.
Hume, The Rift Valleys and Geology of Eastern Sinai (aondon, 1901).
It is probable that Yahweh was at one time worshipped by various tribes south of Palestine, and that several places in that wide territory (Horeb, Sinai, Kadesh, &c.) were sacred to him; the oldest and most famous of these, the mountain of God, seems to have lain in Arabia, east of the Red Sea.
The revelation at Sinai is amid the awe-inspiring phenomena of tempest.
The headsman's axe proved more fatal, and the martyr's body was borne by angels to Mount Sinai, where Justinian I.
They possess - not in Hebrew, of which they are altogether ignorant, but in Ethiopic (or Geez)- the canonical and apocryphal books of the Old Testament; a volume of extracts from the Pentateuch, with comments given to Moses by God on Mount Sinai; the Te-e-sa-sa Sanbat, or laws of the Sabbath; the Ardit, a book of secrets revealed to twelve saints, which is used as a charm against disease; lives of Abraham, Moses, &c.; and a translation of Josephus called Sana Aihud.
At this period, also, under its patesis, Ur-bau and Gudea, Lagash had extensive commercial communications with distant realms. According to his own records, Gudea brought cedars from the Amanus and Lebanon mountains in Syria, diorite or dolorite from eastern Arabia, copper and gold from central and southern Arabia and from Sinai, while his armies, presumably under his over-lord, Ur-Gur, were engaged in battles in Elam on the east.
It is true that the Florentine Simone Sigoli, who visited Cairo in 1384, in his Viaggio al Monte Sinai still speaks of "Presto Giovanni" as a monarch dwelling in India; but it is the India which is conterminous with the dominions of the soldan of Egypt, and whose lord is master of the Nile, to close or open its discharge upon Egypt.
Khufu's work in the temple of Bubastis is proved by a surviving fragment, and he is figured slaying his enemy at Sinai before the god Thoth.
Two tablets at the mines of Wadi Maghara in the peninsula of Sinai, a granite block from Bubastis, and a beautiful ivory statuette found by Petrie in the temple at Abydos, are almost all that can be definitely assigned to Khufu outside the pyramid at Giza and its ruined accompaniments.
Meyer in giving, for reasons which cannot be here explained, for the beginning of the 1st dynasty c. B c. 3400, for the 4th dynasty c. B.C. 2900-2750, and for the rule of the Hyksos c. B.C. 1680-1580; and in his Researches in Sinai, 1906, p. 175, Petrie proposes for Menes B.C. 5510, and for the 4th dynasty B.C. 473 1 -4454.
Sinai, and finally acquired by the tsar in 1869.
Sinai, where it still remains, and was published in 1894 by R.
1436 sqq.); it depends upon the view held regarding the second stage of the journey, the road to the mountain of Sinai or Horeb and thence to Kadesh.
Presuppose a settled encampment and a lawgiving, and thus belong to a stage after Sinai had been reached (Ex.
The Sinai PeninsulaThe triangular-shaped Sinai peninsula has its base on the Mediterranean, the northern part being an arid plateau, the desert of Tih.