There is no evidence of simony in the conclave, and Leo's election was hailed with delight by the Romans on account of his reputation for liberality, kindliness and love of peace.
Laymen were punishable in the court Christian for the delits following: injury to sacred or religious places, sacrilege, heresy (except where it was a " royal case "), sorcery, magic, blasphemy (also punishable in the secular court), adultery, simony, usury and infractions of the truce of God (Fournier, pp. 90-93).
The first really notable council at St Paul's was that of 1075 under the presidency of Lanfranc; it renewed ancient regulations, forbade simony and permitted three bishops to remove from country places to Salisbury, Chichester and Chester respectively.
In 1102 a national synod at Westminster under Anselm adopted canons against simony, clerical marriages and slavery.
Alexander now feared that the king might depose him for simony and summon a council, but he won over the bishop of St Malo, who had much influence over the king, with a cardinal's hat, and agreed to send Cesare, as legate, to Naples with the French army, to deliver Jem to Charles and to give him Civitavecchia (January 16, 1495).
SIMONY, an offence, defined below, against the law of the church.
"Simony according to the canonists," says Ayliffe in his Parergon, " is defined to be a deliberate act or a premeditated will and desire of selling such things as are spiritual, or of anything annexed unto spirituals, by giving something of a temporal nature for the purchase thereof; or in other terms it is defined to be a commutation of a thing spiritual or annexed unto spirituals by giving something that is temporal."
So grave was the crime of simony considered that even infamous persons could accuse of it.
In spite of all the provisions of the canon law it is well established that simony was deeply rooted in the medieval church.
Machiavelli calls luxury, simony and cruelty the three dear friends and handmaids of the same pope.'
And, best proof of all, numerous decisions as to what is or is not simony are to be found in the reported decisions of the Roman rota.
The penalty is forfeiture by the offender of any advantage from the simoniacal transaction, of his patronage by the patron, of his benefice by the presentee; and now by the Benefices Act 1892, a person guilty of simony is guilty of an offence for which he may be proceeded against under the Clergy Discipline Act 1892.
Simony may be committed in three ways - in promotion to orders, in presentation to a benefice, and in resignation of a benefice.
It enacts that after the death of a person simoniacally presented the offence or contract of simony shall not be alleged or pleaded to the prejudice of any other patron innocent of simony, or of his clerk by him presented, unless the person simoniac or simoniacally presented was convicted of such offence at common law or in some ecclesiastical court in the lifetime of the person simoniac or simoniacally presented.
The right to present to a benefice in a newly appointed bishop's patronage at the option of the archbishop. By canon 40 of the canons of 1603 an oath against simony was to be administered to every person admitted to any spiritual or ecclesiastical function, dignity or benefice.
Cases of simony have come before the courts in which clergy of the highest rank have been implicated.
In 1841 the dean of York was deprived by the archbishop for simony, but in this case the queen's bench granted a prohibition on the ground of informality in the proceedings (In Re the Dean of York, 2 Q.B.R.
The general result of the law previous to the Benefices Act 1898, as gathered from the statutes and decisions, may be exhibited as follows: (1) it was not simony for a layman or spiritual person not purchasing for himself to purchase, while the church was full, as advowson or next presentation, however immediate the prospect of a vacancy; (2) it was not simony for a spiritual person to purchase for himself a life or any greater estate in an advowson, and to present himself thereto; (3) it was not simony to exchange benefices under an agreement that no payment was to be made for dilapidations on either side; (4) it was not simony to make certain assignments of patronage under the Church Building and New Parishes Acts (9 & 10 Vict.
C. 94); (5) it was simony for any person to purchase the next presentation while the church was vacant; (6) it was simony for a spiritual person to purchase for himself the next presentation, though the church be full; (7) it was simony for any person to purchase the next presentation, or in the case of purchase of an advowson the next presentation by the purchaser would be simoniacal if there was any arrangement for causing a vacancy to be made; (8) it was simony for the purchaser of an advowson while the church was vacant to present on the next presentation; (9) it was simony to exchange otherwise than simpliciter; no compensation in money might be made to the person receiving the less valuable benefice.
The law on the subject of simony was long regarded as unsatisfactory by the authorities of the church.
By the Act of 1584, c. 5, ministers, readers and others guilty of simony provided to benefices were to be deprived.
In addition to this, canons were enacted against simony and the marriage of priests; while resolutions were passed in favour of the crusaders, of pilgrims to Rome and in the interests of the truce of God.
Renewed declarations against simony, lay investiture, and clerical marriages, and in a policy of continued opposition to Henry IV.
At the time of the agitation against simony and the corruption of the clergy, the head of the movement in Florence was San Giovanni Gualberto, of the monastery of San Salvi.
Upon the bishop having satisfied himself of the sufficiency of the clerk, he proceeds to institute him to the spiritual office to which the benefice is annexed, but before such institution can take place, the clerk is required to make a declaration of assent to the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion and to the Book of Common Prayer according to a form prescribed in the Clerical Subscription Act 1865, to make a declaration against simony in accordance with that act, and to take and subscribe the oath of allegiance according to the form in the Promissory Oaths Act 1868.
By his bold and thorough-going opposition to this mode of procedure against Ladislaus, and still more by his doctrine that indulgence could never be sold without simony, and could not be lawfully granted by the church except on condition of genuine contrition and repentance, Huss at last isolated himself, not only from the archiepiscopal party under Albik of Unitschow, but also from the theological faculty of the university, and especially from such men as Stanislaus of Znaim and Stephen Paletz, who until then had been his chief supporters.
The Paterines in Milan (1045) raised a protest against simony and other abuses of the clergy, and Pope Gregory VII.
At Mainz also he held a council, at which the Italian and French as well as the German clergy were represented, and ambassadors of the Greek emperor were present; here too simony and the marriage of the clergy were the principal matters dealt with.
Griffenfeldt, who was charged with simony, bribery, oath-breaking, malversation and lese-majeste, conducted his own defence under every imaginable difficulty.
The programme of reform thus included not only the extirpation of simony and Nicolaitism, but also the freeing of the Church from the influence of the State, the recovery of her absolute control over all her possessions, the liberty of the Church and of the hierarchy.
18 et seq., simony was held to be the purchase of ordination.
Since the landed proprietors disposed of churches and convents, and the kings of bishoprics and abbeys, it became possible for them too to commit the sin of simony; hence a final expansion, in the iith century, of the meaning of the term.
The PseudoIsidorian idea being that all lay control over things ecclesiastical is wrong, all transferences by laymen of ecclesiastical offices or benefices, even though no money changed hands in the process, were now classed as simony (Humbert, Adversus Simoniacos, 1057-1058).
During his pontificate a decree against simony was engraven on marble and placed before the altar of St Peter's.
As bishop of Lucca he had been an energetic coadjutor with Hildebrand irk endeavouring to suppress simony, and to enforce the celibacy of the clergy.
(1048-1054) the pope suddenly came forward as the active and indefatigable champion of reform; simony and incontinence of the clergy were attacked by the one most qualified to purify the Church of them.
He took no pains to temper the zeal of his legates, but incited them to the struggle, and, not content with prohibiting lay investiture and simony, expressly forbade prelates and even priests to pay homage to the civil power.
These conciliatory prelates were sincere supporters of the reformation, and combated simony, the marriage or concubinage of priests, and the immorality of sovereigns with the same conviction as the most ardent followers of Gregory VII.
Of his ecclesiastical achievements the bull against simony at papal elections deserves the most honourable mention.
Urban was serious and humble, opposed to all nepotism, simony, and secular pomp. He was himself of blameless morality and reformed many abuses in the curia.
Under the previously existing law, simony, or "the corrupt presentation of any person to an ecclesiastical benefice for gift, money or reward," renders the presentation void, and subjects the persons privy or party to it to penalties; a presentation to a vacant benefice cannot be sold, and no clerk in holy orders can purchase for himself a next presentation.
His bull of the 14th of January 1505 against simony in papal elections was re-enacted by the Lateran council (February 16, 1513).
The charge of simony was inspired by Jesuit hatred; there is absolutely no evidence that Ganganelli pledged himself to suppress the order.
He consolidated and increased the estates of the church, exercised the powers of a count, denounced simony and initiated financial reforms. The presence of this powerful and active personality, who was moreover a close friend of the emperor, was greatly resented by the Saxon duke, Bernard II., who regarded him as a spy sent by Henry into Saxony.
Urban was frugal and never practised simony, but harshness, lack of tact, and fondness for unworthy nephews disgraced his pontificate.
In June 1055 Victor met the emperor at Florence, and held a council, which anew condemned clerical marriages, simony and the alienation of the estates of the church.
There is a charge that he was guilty of simony, having received his office through the favour of Philip, brother of Louis VII., his former pupil.
Of his numerous other Bohemian works we may mention the Postilla (collection of sermons), the treatises 0 poznani testy grave k spaseni (the true road to salvation) and O svatokupectvi (on simony), and a large collection of letters; those written in prison are very touching.
But he did not understand that this power was spoilt by self-seeking, and his offer of money to the Apostles, to enable him to confer the gift of the Holy Ghost, has branded his name for ever through the use of the word "simony" (q.v.).
With bitter indignation Swift denounced the simony and threw up his chaplaincy, but he was ultimately reconciled to Berkeley by the presentation to the rectory of Agher in Meath with the united vicarages of Laracor and Rathbeggan, to which was added the prebend of Dunlavin in St Patrick's - the total value being about 230 a year.