On the allied side the British (25,000), including some German auxiliaries, were about Leiria: the Portuguese regular troops (16,000) near Thomar; and some thousands of Portuguese militia were observing Soult in the north of Portugal, a body under Silveira being at Amarante, which Soult was now approaching.
The Portuguese being in his rear, and Wellesley closing with him, the only good road of retreat available lay through Amarante, but he now learned that Beresford had taken this important point from Silveira; so he was then compelled, abandoning his guns and much baggage, to escape, with a loss of some s000 men, over the mountains of the Sierra Catalina to Salamonde, and thence to Orense.
A senate was organized in 1583, and in 1628 Jeronimo de Silveira became first royal governor of Macao.
The events following on the murder of the Jesuit father Dom Gongalo da Silveira (cf.
Valuable assistance had been rendered by the Portuguese generals Antonio da Silveira and Manoel de Brito Mousinho - the first a leader, the second an organizer.