The difficulties of the harbour were increased by the continued silting up, produced by the enormous amount of solid material brought down by the river.
5, p. 231) the harbour of Ostia had become dangerous: he speaks of it as a "city without a harbour owing to the silting up brought about by the Tiber.
103, owing to the silting up of the Claudian harbour, and the increase of trade, to construct another port further inland - a hexagonal basin enclosing an area of 97 acres with enormous warehouses - communicating with the harbour of Claudius and with the Tiber by means of the channel already constructed by Claudius, this channel being prolonged so as to give also direct access to the sea.
In the middle ages Ostia regained something of its importance, owing to the silting up of the right arm of the Tiber.
About 1395 this channel began to show signs of silting up, and during the next hundred years the process proved rapid.
The slope of the river bed diminishes until the plain compels the river to move slowly, swinging in meanders proportioned to its size, and gradually, controlled by the flattening land, ceasing to transport material, but raising its banks and silting up its bed by the dropped sediment, until, split up and shoaled, its distributaries struggle across its delta to the sea.
Here, in fact, lay some of the oldest and wealthiest towns, the sites of which have, however, been removed inland by the silting up of the shore.
It is supposed to be the Camanes of Ptolemy, and was formerly a very flourishing city, the seat of an extensive trade, and celebrated for its manufactures of silk, chintz and gold stuffs; but owing principally to the gradually increasing difficulty of access by water, owing to the silting up of the gulf, its commerce has long since fallen away, and the town has become poor and dilapidated.
The roadstead is very shallow, and exposed to winds which cause great variations in the height of the water; it is, moreover, rapidly silting up. At the quay the depth of water is only 8 to 9 feet, and large ships have to lie 5 to 13 miles from the town.
Its present deserted and malarious state is probably owing to the silting up of the mouth of the Silarus, which has overflowed its bed, and converted the plain into unproductive marshy ground.
The Rhine has been one of the chief waterways of Europe from the earliest times; and, as its channel is not exposed to the danger of silting up like those of the Elbe and the Oder, it has always been comparatively easy to keep it open.
Of land have been formed by the silting up of the shore since the foundation of Spasinus Charax (Muhamrah) in the time of Alexander the Great, or some 115 ft.
The fishing village of Arnemuiden flourished as a harbour in the 16th century, but decayed owing to the silting up of the sand.
The town, which obtained civic rights in 1200, also became the seat of the dukes of Schleswig, but its commerce gradually dwindled owing to the rivalry of Lubeck, the numerous wars in which the district was involved, and the silting up of the Schlei.
Inland; while Bet el Fakih and Zubed, once important centres of the coffee trade, have lost their position through the silting up of the ports which formerly served them.
Since then it has greatly declined, owing to the silting up of its harbour and the competition of Taganrog.
The trade of Konigsberg was much hindered by the constant shifting and silting up of the channels leading to its harbour; and the great northern wars did it immense harm, but before the end of the 17th century it had almost recovered.
Its existence as a port began with the silting up of the harbour of Tarsus and Pompeiopolis, east and west, in the early middle ages; but it did not rise to importance till the Egyptian occupation of Cilicia (1832).
The place cannot now be identified, as the formation of the Baltic coast has been much modified in the course of subsequent centuries, partly by the gradual silting up of the sea, and partly by the storms of the 14th century.
There are indications that the bed of Lake Victoria, as well as that of Chakmaktin, is rapidly silting, and that the shores of the latter are gradually receding farther from the foot of the hills.
By this time its maritime commerce had suffered disaster owing to the silting up of its port and the deflection of the Adour.
As the administrative headquarters of the district, and the chief port on the Coromandel coast after Madras, Cocanada was formerly of considerable importance, but its shipping trade has declined, owing to the silting of the anchorage, and to the construction of the railway.
Roman remains have been found in the vicinity; and, the geological formations exhibiting the process of silting up of a former river channel are exposed in the quarries, and contain large mammalian remains.
The head of the gulf of Ismid is gradually silting up. The dockyard was closed in 1879, and the port of Ismid is now at Darinje, 3 m.
From the first European traders set up factories here, and after the ruin of Satgaon by the silting up of the mouth of the Saraswati it gained a position, as the great trading centre of Bengal, which was not challenged until after the foundation of Calcutta.
The town still possesses a large maritime trade, despite the silting-up of the river mouth.
After 1180 the premier position was assumed by Ghent, but until access by sea was stopped by the silting up of the Zwyn, which was complete by the year 1490, Bruges was the equal in wealth and power of its neighbour.
But a variety of causes set back the development of the city, notably the prevalence of plague and cholera due to the silting up of the creeks that divided its component islands; and it was not till after the amalgamation of the old and new companies in 1708 that the governor's seat was transferred from Surat to Bombay.
After Cairo and Alexandria, Damietta was for centuries the largest town in Egypt, but the silting up of the entrance to the harbour, the rise of Port Said, and the remarkable development of Alexandria have robbed Damietta of its value as a port.
Thinking that the shallowness of the harbour was due to the width of its mouth, he built a mole part-way across the latter; the result, however, was that the silting up of the harbour proceeded more rapidly than before.