It has large coal mines, which form the south-western portion of the extensive Upper Silesian coal fields, the largest Austrian deposit.
In 1742, however, he was induced to transfer his support to Maria Theresa, and his troops took part in the struggle against Frederick the Great during the Silesian wars, and again when the Seven Years' War began in 1756.
The only doubt arises from the existence of insect remains, referred to the order Coleoptera, in the Silesian Culm of Steinkunzendorf near Reichenbach.
The court of Vienna had treated the Silesian Protestants with tyrannical severity, in direct contravention of the treaty of Osnabruck, of which Sweden was one of the guarantors; and Charles demanded summary and complete restitution so dictatorially that the emperor prepared for war.
The Riesengebirge has of late years been made easily accessible by railway, several branches from the main lines, both on the Silesian and Bohemian side, penetrating the valleys, and thus many spots in the Riesengebirge are a good deal frequented in the summer.
Hence a prolonged halt arose, utilized by the troops in renewing their equipment and so forth, but ultimately the Young German party, led by Blucher and the principal fighting men of the army, triumphed, and on the 1st of January 1814 the Silesian army (50,000) began its passage of the Rhine at Kaub.
These disasters compelled the retreat of the whole Silesian army, and Napoleon, leaving Mortier and Marmont to deal with them, hurried back to Troyes with his main body to strike the flank of Schwarzenberg's army, which had meanwhile begun its leisurely advance, and again at Mormant on the 17th of February, Montereau the 38th and Mery the he inflicted such heavy punishment upon his adversaries that they fell back precipitately to Bar-sur-Aube.
The Silesian army was thus able to escape, and marching northwards combined with Bernadotte at Laon - this reinforcement bringing the forces at Blucher's disposal up to over 10o,000 men.
The Silesian furnace has an oblong hearth sloping from the firebridge to the flue-bridge.
While by the English and Carinthian processes as much lead as possible is extracted in the furnace, with the Silesian method a very low temperature is used, thus taking out about one-half of the lead and leaving very rich slags (50% lead) to be smelted in the blast-furnace, the ultimate result being a very much higher yield than by either of the other processes.
His Silesian and Austrian acquisitions were also very beneficial to trade, throwing open as they did the western markets to Hungarian produce.
BOBER, a river of Germany, the most considerable of the left bank tributaries of the Oder; it rises at an altitude of 24 4 0 ft., on the northern (Silesian) side of the Riesengebirge.
In 1708 for the education of the young Silesian nobles, was reconstructed as a gymnasium in 1810.
Bestuzhev prevent the signing of a Russo-Prussian defensive alliance (March 1 743); but he deprived it of all political significance by excluding from it the proposed guarantee of Frederick's Silesian conquests.
In the Silesian process the distillation is conducted in specially constructed muffles of a prismatic shape arched above, which are arranged in two parallel rows within a low-vaulted furnace, similar to the pots in a glass furnace.
In the Silesian wars of Frederick II., Moritz, the ablest of the old Leopold's sons, greatly distinguished himself, especially at the battle of Hohenfriedberg (Striegau), 1745.
The valley of the March and Oder separates the Carpathians from the Silesian and Moravian chains, which belong to the middle wing of the great central mountain system of Europe.
The claim of Prussia to the principality of Jagerndorf was the occasion of the first Silesian war (1740-1742), but in the partition, which followed, Austria retained the larger portion of it.
But, after passing through the gap between the Moravian mountains, and the Carpathians and entering the Silesian plain,, its valley is wide and shallow and its banks generally low.
MARIA CUNITZ (c. 1610-1664), Silesian astronomer, was the eldest daughter of Dr Heinrich Cunitz of Schweinitz, and the wife (1630) of Dr Elias von ',Oven, of Pitschen in Silesia - both of them men of learning and distinction.
From her universal accomplishments she was called the "Silesian Pallas," and the publication of her work, Urania propitia (Oels, 1650), a simplification of the Rudolphine Tables, gained her a European reputation.
All the lands torn from John Frederick were not, however, assigned to Maurice; he was forced to acknowledge the superiority of Bohemia over the Vogtland and the Silesian duchy of Sagan.
Under his ill-omened auspices Saxony sided with Prussia in the First Silesian War, and with Austria in the other two.
Religious tolerance and liberty of conscience for the Silesian protestants.
Pursuing his way to Silesia, Batu overthrew the confederated Silesian princes at Liegnitz (April 9), and, after burning all the Silesian towns, invaded Hungary, where he routed King Bela IV.
Sigismund, in 1422, even went so far as to propose a partition of Poland between Hungary, the empire and the Silesian princes, a scheme which foundered upon Sigismund's impecuniosity and the reluctance of the Magyars to injure the Poles.
The first press from which books in the Polish language appeared was that of Hieronymus Wietor, a Silesian, who commenced publishing in 1515.
Physiographically Silesia, is roughly divided into a flat and a hilly portion by the so-called Silesian Langental, which begins on the south-east near the river Malapane, and extends across the province in a west-by-north direction to the Black Elster, following in part the valley of the Oder.
The merino sheep was introduced by Frederick the Great, and since then the Silesian breed has been greatly improved.
Weaving has been practised in Silesia, on a large scale, since the 14th century; and Silesian linen still maintains its reputation, though the conditions of production have greatly changed.
The beginnings of Silesian history do not reach back beyond the 10th century A.D., at which time the district was occupied by clans of Slavonic nationality, one of which derived its name from the mountain Zlenz (mod.
About the year 1000 the Silesian clans were incorporated in the kingdom of Poland, whose rulers held their ground with difficulty against continuous attacks by the kings of Bohemia, but maintained themselves successfully against occasional raids from Germany.
Large areas of forest or swamp were reclaimed for agriculture; the great Silesian industries of mining and weaving were called into existence, and Breslau grew to be a leading centre of exchange for the wares of East and West.
The growing resources of the Silesian duchies are exemplified by the strength of the army with which Henry II., duke of Lower Silesia, broke the force of the Mongol invasion at the battle of Liegnitz (1241), and by the glamour at the court of the Minnesinger, Henry IV.
This prosperity, however, was checked by a growing tendency among the Silesian dynasties to make partitions of their territories at each new succession.
Unable to institute an effective national government, and unwilling to attach themselves again to Poland, the Silesian princes began about 1290 to seek the protection of the German dynasty then ruling in Bohemia.
Though most of the Silesian dynasts seemed ready to acquiesce, the burghers of Breslau fiercely repudiated the new suzerain, and before he could enforce his claims to homage he was ousted by the Hungarian king, Matthias Corvinus, who was readily recognized as overlord (1469) .
By instituting a permanent diet of Silesian princes and estates to co-operate with his vicegerent, he took an important step towards the abolition of particularism and the establishment of an effective central government.
Henceforth, too, annexations of territory were frequently carried out by the Bohemian crown on the extinction of Silesian dynasties, and the surviving princes showed an increasing reluctance to the exercise of their authority.
Accordingly the Silesian estates never again chose to exercise initiative save on rare occasions, and from 1550 Silesia passed almost completely under foreign administration.
Yet the Prussian king recovered his lost ground by gigantic efforts and eventually retained his Silesian territory undiminished.
Owing to the lack of a corporate Silesian consciousness and the feebleness of their local institutions, the people soon became reconciled to their change of rulers.
By liberal endowments and minute but judicious regulations he brought about a rapid development of Silesian industries; in particular he revived the mining and weaving operations which at present constitute the country's chief source of wealth.
Silesian Wars >>
The hills north and north-east of it are termed the Silesian Mountaihs.
To these belongs the upper Silesian coal-basin, which occupies a considerable area in south-eastern Silesia.
A still larger field exists in the upper Silesian basin, on the borderland between Austria and Poland, containing about 50.000 million tons.
The Silesian coal-fields have a second centre in \Valdenhurg, east of the Riesengebirge.
The North German plain has, in the east, a canal by which Russian grain is conveyed to Konigsberg, joining the Pregel to the Memel, and the upper Silesian coalfield is in communication with the Oder by means of the Klodnitz canal.
His father had guaranteed the prag matic sanction, but as the conditions on which the guarantee had been granted had not been fulfilled by Charles VI., Frederick did not feel bound by it, and revived some old claims of his family on certain Silesian duchies.
By the death of the archduke Sigismund in 1665 he not only gained Tirol, but a considerable sum of money, which he used to buy back the Silesian principalities of Oppeln and Ratibor, pledged by Ferdinand III.
He had made up his mind to assert the ancient claim of the house of Brandenburg to the three Silesian duchies, which the Austrian rulers of Bohemia had ever denied, but the Hohenzollerns had never abandoned.
Frederick began the second Silesian War by entering Bohemia in August 1744 and taking Prague.
When both Stein's initial attacks were under way, the 12th Silesian Div., under the command of Gen.
There are a Lutheran and two Roman Catholic churches, one of which, the parish church, contains the monuments of seven Silesian dukes.
During the Thirty Years' War it was sacked by the Imperialists, the Saxons and the Swedes in turn; and in the first Silesian war the same fate befell it at the hands of the French and Bavarians.
KONIGSHUTTE, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia, situated in the middle of the Upper Silesian coal and iron district, 3 m.
ZITTAU, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, on the left bank of the Mandau, near its confluence with the Neisse, close to the Bohemian and Silesian frontier, 25 m.
Jauer was formerly the prosperous seat of the Silesian linen trade, but the troubles of the Thirty Years' War, in the course of which it was burned down three times, permanently injured this.
In 1537 he had concluded a treaty with Frederick III., duke of Liegnitz, which guaranteed to the Hohenzollerns the succession to the Silesian duchies of Liegnitz, Brieg and Wohlau in the event of the ducal family becoming extinct; this arrangement is important as the basis of the claim made by Frederick the Great on Silesia in 1740.
He had, moreover, a further grievance against the emperor as Leopold refused to recognize his right to the Silesian duchies of Liegnitz, Brieg and Wohlau, which had been left without a ruler in 1675.
Soon afterwards he received Schwiebus to compensate him for abandoning his claim on the Silesian duchies, and in a secret treaty made promises of support to Leopold.