**The** **cause** **of** **Sigwart'****s** **error** **is** **his** **misconception** **of** " **all**."

**So** **Sigwart'****s** **syllogism** **would** **be** **the** **following** **non-sequitur**:- **If** **anything** **is** **a** **professor**, **it** **is** **good**.

**These** **very** **different** **relations** **of** **premises** **are** **obliterated** **by** **Sigwart'****s** **false** **reduction** **of** **categorical** **universals** **to** **hypotheticals**.

**But** **even** **Sigwart'****s** **errors** **are** **outdone** **by** **Lotze**, **who** **not** **only** **reduces** " **Every** **NI** **is** **P** " **so** " **If** **S** **is** **M**, **S** **is** **P**," **but** **proceeds** **to** **reduce** **this** **hypothetical** **to** **the** **disjunctive**, " **If** **S** **is** **NI**, **S** **is** **P** **L** **or** **P** 2 **or** 1 33, " **and** **finds** **fault** **with** **the** **Aristotelian** **syllogism** **because** **it** **contents** **itself** **with** **inferring** " **S** **is** **P** " **without** **showing** **what** **P**. **Now** **there** **are** **occasions** **when** **we** **want** **to** **reason** **in** **this** **disjunctive** **manner**, **to** **consider** **whether** **S** **is** **I** **n** **or** **P** 2 **or** **P** 3, **and** **to** **conclude** **that** " **S** **is** **a** **particular** **P** "; **but** **ordinarily** **all** **we** **want** **to** **know** **is** **that** " **S** **is** **P** "; **e**.**g**.

**But** **Kant'****s** **criticism** **and** **Sigwart'****s** **corollary** **only** **derive** **plausibility** **from** **a** **false** **definition** **of** **truth**.

**In** **indicating** **specifically**, **too**, **the** **case** **of** **conclusion** **from** **a** **copulative** **major** **premise** **with** **a** **disjunctive** **minor**, **Herbart** **seems** **to** **have** **suggested** **the** **cue** **for** **Sigwart'****s** **exposition** **of** **Bacon'****s** **method** **of** **exclusions**.

**Sigwart'****s** **aim** **was** " **to** **reconstruct** **logic** **from** **the** **point** **of** **view** **of** **methodology**."

2 **It** **is** **characteristic** **of** **Sigwart'****s** **point** **of** **view** **that** **he** **acknowledges** **obligation** **to** **Mill** **as** **well** **as** **to** **Ueberweg**.