Elise gave a few hand signals to her detail.
Elise and Dan were a good team, relaying hand signals and other silent communications with nothing more than a glance at each other.
In this manner the signals are read by ear.
What the hell, if hand signals and the language of smiles could do the trick, she'd make a fine employee.
Etymologically the word implies that the messages are written, but its earliest use was of appliances that depended on visual signals, such as the semaphore or optical telegraph of Claude Chappe.
When signals are to be sent from either station the operator turns the switch c out of contact with the stop b, and then operates precisely as in open circuit send '" i ing.
In such cases it is usual to employ a local battery to produce the signals, and to close the local battery circuit by means of a relay working.
The result is that the armature of the relay is attracted, and currents are sent through the sounder from the local battery, producing the signals from the distant station.
A method of recording signals in the Morse code, formerly used to a considerable extent, was to use a chemically prepared ribbon of paper.
It was found impossible to make the Morse ink writer so sensitive that it could record signals sent over land lines of several hundred miles in length, if the speed of transmission was very much faster than that which could be effected by hand, and this led to the adoption of automatic methods of transmission.
In Squier and Crehore's " Synchronograph " system " sine waves of current, instead of sharp " makes and breaks," or sharp reversals, are employed for transmitting signals, the waves being produced by an alternating-current dynamo, and regulated by means of a perforated paper ribbon, as in the Wheatstone automatic system.
Screw adjustments are provided for closing or opening the air gap between the electromagnets and armatures, for raising or lowering the siphon, and for adjusting the point of the siphon to the centre or side of the paper strip. The received signals are recorded on the paper strip in an undulating continuous line of ink, and are distinguished by the length of deviation from zero.
Up to too words per minute the signals are easily readable, but beyond that speed they are more difficult to translate, although experts can read them when received at zoo words per minute.
In the improved Pollak-Virag system the received signals are recorded in characters similar to ordinary handwriting.
A ray of light is directed upon the mirror, and the motion of the latter, due to the varying strengths and direction of the received currents, is made to write the transmitted signals upon a strip of bromide photographic paper about three inches wide.
If by any chance wrong signals are printed or the instruments get out of phase, the sender is stopped by the receiver sending a few signals, after which both type-wheels are again set to zero and correspondence continued.
At regular intervals a rotating arm on the distributor connects the five keys of each keyboard to line, thus passing the signals to the distant station, where they pass through the distributor and certain relays which repeat the currents corresponding to the depressed keys and actuate electromagnets in the receivers.
Each receiver is provided with five electromagnets corresponding to the five keys of the keyboard, and the armatures of the electromagnets can thus repeat the various combinations for all the signals allocated to the different combinations of the keys.
When a combination of signals has been received and the armatures have taken up their respective positions corresponding to the transmitting keyboard, certain mechanism in the receiver translates the position of the five armatures into a mechanical movement which lifts the paper tape against a type-wheel and prints the corresponding letter.
The signals must therefore be sent at regular intervals, and to ensure this being done correctly a telephone or time-tapper is provided at each keyboard to warn the operator of the correct moment to depress his keys.
At the receiving station electrical mechanisms record the signals once more as perforations in a paper strip forming an exact replica of the transmitting tape.
For working long submarine cables the apparatus ordinarily employed on land lines cannot be used, as the retarding effect of the electrostatic capacity of the cable is so marked that signals fail to be recorded except at a very slow speed of working.
The transmitted signals or electric impulses, which on a land line are sharply defined when received, become attenuated and prolonged in the case of a long cable, and are unable to actuate the.
The record of the signals given by this instrument was an undulating line of fine perforations or spots, and the character and succession of the undulations were used to interpret the signals desired to be sent.
The interpretation of the signals is according to the Morse code, - the dot and dash being represented by deflexions of the line of dots to one side or other of the centre line of the paper.
The heavier cores, with the consequent advance in speed of working attainable, have necessitated the introduction of automatic sending, the instruments adopted being in general a modification of the Wheatstone transmitter adapted to the form of cable signals, while the regularity of transmission thus secured has caused its introduction even on circuits where the speed cannot exceed that of the ordinary operator's hand signalling.
Owing to the difficulty of maintaining perfect balance on duplexed cables, curb sending is not now used, but the signals are transmitted by means of an apparatus similar to the Wheatstone automatic transmitter used on land lines and differing from the latter only in regard to the alphabet employed; the signals from the transmitter actuate a relay having heavy armatures which in turn transmit the signals to the cable; this arrangement gives very firm signals, a point of great importance for good working.
The special form of curb sender mentioned, termed the " Interpolator," has been devised so as to secure the correct re-transmission of any given number of consecutive elements of a letter which are of the same sign, for when signals are received at the end of a long cable the relay arm will not return to its zero position between consecutive elements of the same sign, but will remain on the respective contact surface during the whole time occupied by such consecutive elements.
The instrument consists of two cams, the form of which regulates the components of the curbed signal, one cam being for the dot element and the other for the dash element, which by their sequence give the letter signals; these cams, by means of clutches controlled by the relay, are mechanically rotated by clockwork, the speed of rotation being approximately adjusted to the rate of transmission of a single element, so that the requisite number of consecutive elements is transmitted corresponding to the duration of contact of the relay arm with the side controlling that particular element.
18,261 of 1898) is what may be termed a magnifier, since signals so small as to be almost unreadable on direct record are rendered perfectly legible.
A, slip as received on recorder, using ordinary relays for translating on to second cable; B, slip as received on recorder, when interpolator is used at intermediate station, for sending on to second cable; C (four cells through a line, KR=3.6), signals with recorder under ordinary conditions; D, all conditions the same as in C, but magnifying relay inserted between the end of the line and the recorder.
The action of this bridge resembles the magnetic shunt in its effect on the received signals, as the direction of the winding is the same throughout its length, and thus the full inductive action is produced for curbing purposes.
The average total inductive value of these bridges to received signals is about 40 henrys, and the coil is so arranged that the arms contain three sections or blocks of winding each, two of which are joined up to strap connexions, and the a p :?; .?
In this way communication was established from both sides on the 16th of August, but it did not continue long, for the insulation had been ruined by Whitehouse's treatment, and after the 20th of October no signals could be got through.
Hence, by inserting a break-and-make key in the circuit of the battery, coil or dynamo, the uniform noise or hum in the telephone can be cut up into periods of long and short noises, which can be made to yield the signals of the Morse alphabet.
Experiments of this kind were actually tried by Graham Bell in 1882, with boats on the Potomac river, and signals were detected at a distance of a mile and a half.
By the use of a key in the battery circuit as well as an interrupter or current reverser, signals can be given by breaking up the continuous hum in the telephone into long and short periods.
In 1885 Preece and Heaviside proved by experiments made at Newcastle that if two completely insulated circuits of square form, each side being 440 yds., were placed a quarter of a mile apart, telephonic speech was conveyed from one to the other by induction, and signals could be perceived even when they were separated by 1000 yds.
The signals were sent by cutting up the continuous hum in the telephone into long and short periods in accordance with the Morse code by manipulating the key in the primary circuit.
There is no evidence, however, that the method proposed could or did effect the transmission of speech or signals between stations separated by any distance.
Adjust the frequency so that it has the value of the normal time period of the circuit formed of the condenser and transformer secondary circuit, and thus it is possible to obtain condenser oscillatory discharges free from any admixture with alternating current arc. In this manner the condenser discharge can be started or stopped at pleasure, and long and short discharges made in accordance with the signals of the Morse FIG.
When electric waves fell on the antenna they caused the mercury-steel junction to become conductive during the time they endured, and the siphon recorder therefore to write signals consisting of short or long deflexions of its pen and therefore notches of various length on the ink line drawn on the strip of telegraphic tape.
In the same way the arrangements finally elaborated by Lodge and Muirhead consisted of a direct coupled antenna and nearly closed condenser circuit, and a similar receiving circuit containing as a detector the steel wheel revolving on oily mercury which actuated a siphon recorder writing signals on paper tape.
Long upheld by a box kite, and, employing a sensitive coherer and telephone as a receiver, he was able, on December 12, 1901, to hear " S " signals on the Morse code, consisting of three dots, which he had arranged should be sent out from Poldhu at stated hours, according to a preconcerted programme, so as to leave no doubt they were electric wave signals sent across the Atlantic and not accidental atmospheric electric disturbances.
In the course of this voyage he noticed that the signals were received better during the night than the daytime, legible messages being received on a Morse printer only 700 m.
To send signals the continuous or nearly continuous train of waves must be cut up into Morse signals by a key, and these are then heard as audible signals in the telephone.
An important modification of this method enables not only audible signals but articulated words to be transmitted, and gives thus a system of wireless telephony.
The call is controlled by the trunk operators, the junction circuits being equipped in such a manner that the subscribers' signals appear at the trunk exchanges, from which point disconnecting signals are sent automatically to the local exchanges, when the connexions between the trunk and the junction circuits are removed.
In certain respects, on the other hand, America has gone further than the United Kingdom, especially in the matter of automatic signalling, and in the operating of points and signals by electrical power or air-pressure instead of manual labour.
Again, low speeds, light stock, less stringent requirements as to continuous brakes, signals, block-working and interlocking, road-crossings, stations, &c., tend to cheapness in working.
He was one of the first to perceive the vast changes which must ensue from the introduction of steam into the navy, which would necessitate a new system of signals and a new method of tactics.
They made no sounds at all, either in flying or trying to speak, and they conversed mainly by means of quick signals made with their wooden fingers or lips.
He tried to make signals to them; he called as loudly as he could; but he was neither seen nor heard, and the ships came no nearer.
The word is still sometimes employed in this sense, as of the ship's telegraph, by means of which orders are mechanically transmitted from the navigating bridge to the engine room, but when used without qualification it usually denotes telegraphic apparatus worked by electricity, whether the signals that express the words of the message are visual, auditory or written.