In 1212 Mahommed III., "En-Nasir" (1199-1214), the successor of El Mansur, was utterly defeated by the allied five Christian princes of Spain, Navarre and Portugal, at Las Navas de Tolosa in the Sierra Morena.
East) by the Sierra de Cullera.
In the extreme north, extending southward from the great Bolivian highlands, there are several parallel ranges, the most prominent of which are: the Sierra de Santa Catalina, from which the detached Cachi, Gulumpaji and Famatina ranges project southward; and the Sierra de Santa Victoria, south of which are the Zenta, Aconquija, Ambato and Ancaste ranges.
Long, formed by the confluence of the Tercero and Cuarto, whose sources are in the Sierra de Cordoba; it flows eastward across the pampas, and discharges into the Parana at Gaboto, about 40 m.
The large saline Mar Chiquita, of Cordoba, is fed from the Sierra de Cordoba and has no outlet.
Crevillente is a picturesque old town built among the eastern foothills of the Sierra de Crevillente.
It is formed by the confluence of three head-streams, one of which rises on the northern versant of La Sagra (7875 ft.), a mountain in Granada, while the other two spring from the Sierra de Segura, in Jaen.
Being built midway between the Sierra de Priego and Sierra Parapanda, and commanding the open valley between these ranges, it became one of the chief frontier fortresses of the Moors in the 15th century.
It is picturesquely situated in Eagle valley, near the east base of the Sierra Nevada, at an elevation of 4720 ft.
In 1462 Pedro de Cintra extended Portuguese exploration along the African coast and discovered Sierra Leone.
Indigenous palms grow in the valleys of the Sierra Jose Ignacio, also to some extent in the departments of Minas, Maldonado and Paysandu.
In 1905 Liberia proposed to France that the boundary line should follow the river Moa from the British frontier of Sierra Leone up stream to near the source of the Moa (or Makona), and that from this point the boundary should run eastwards along the line of water-parting between the system of the Niger on the north and that of the coast rivers (Moa, Lofa, St Paul's) on the south, until the 8th degree of N.
But after deliberation and as the result of certain "frontier incidents" France modified her counter-proposals in 1907, and the actual definition of the northern and eastern frontiers of Liberia is as follows: Starting from the point on the frontier of the British colony of Sierra Leone where the river Moa or Makona crosses that frontier, the Franco-Liberian frontier shall follow the left bank of the river Makona up stream to a point 5 kilometres to the south of the town of Bofosso.
The Liberian coast has few lagoons compared with the adjoining littoral of Sierra Leone or that of the Ivory Coast.
The Mano or Bewa river rises in the dense Gora forest, but is of no great importance until it becomes the frontier between Liberia and Sierra Leone.
Its lower course is through the territory of Sierra Leone, and it enters the sea as the Sulima.
The extreme north of Liberia is still for the most part a very well-watered country, covered with a rich vegetation, but there are said to be a few breaks that are rather stony and that have a very well-marked dry season in which the vegetation is a good deal burnt up. In the main Liberia is the forest country par excellence of West Africa, and although this region of dense forests overlaps the political frontiers of both Sierra Leone and the Ivory Coast, it is a feature of physical geography so nearly coincident with the actual frontiers of Liberia as to give this country special characteristics clearly marked in its existing fauna.
The fauna of Liberia is sufficiently peculiar, at any rate as regards vertebrates, to make it very nearly identical with a "district" or sub-province of the West African province, though in this case the Liberian "district" would not include the northernmost portions of the country and would overlap on the east and west into Sierra Leone and the French Ivory Coast.
Nowhere, perhaps, does the flora of West Africa attain a more wonderful development than in the republic of Liberia and in the adjoining regions of Sierra Leone and the Ivory Coast.
In a general way it is supposed that the lands lying between the lower St Paul's river and the Sierra Leone frontier are not much mineralized, except that in the vicinity of river mouths there are indications of bitumen.
Sierra Leone, however, was chosen first on account of its possessing an admirable harbour.
The Sierra Leone-Liberia frontier was demarcated in 1903; then followed the negotiations with France for the exact delimitation of the Ivory Coast-Liberia frontier, with the result that Liberia lost part of the hinterland she had claimed.
There are three custom-houses, or ports of entry on the Sierra Leone land frontier between the Moa river on the north and the Mano on the south, and nine ports of entry along the coast.
In 1675 a court intrigue, conducted by his rivals and supported by the younger Don John of Austria, was so far successful that he was driven from court; but the queen gave him the title of marquis of Villa Sierra, and appointed him ambassador to Venice.
Part of his property, and the title of Villa Sierra, but not the grandeeship, were restored to his wife and children.
Of the Colorado river; the northern edge being formed by the divide of the drainage basin of the Columbia river, the eastern by that of the Colorado, the western by the central part of the Sierra Nevada crest, and by other high mountains.
In the north it is due to the fact that the winds from the Pacific lose most of their moisture, especially in winter, on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada; in the south it is due to the fact that the region lies in a zone of calms, and light, variable winds.
There are many permanent lakes without outlet fed by the mountain streams; others, snow fed, occur among the Sierra Nevada; and some in the larger mountain masses of the middle region.
The Sierra Nevada range, which forms the western rim of the Basin, sends into the state a single lofty spur, the Washoe Mountains.
Above the sea, which receives the drainage of the eastern slopes of the Sierra and what little drainage there is in the northern half of Nevada.
The Truckee river flows with more vigour, having its source in Lake Tahoe, in California, at an altitude of 6225 ft., and entering the Carson river through an irrigation canal :completed in 1905; before this date it flowed into Pyramid Lake and Lake Winnemucca in the depression at the foot of the Sierra Nevada.
Large animals, such as the black and the grizzly bear, and deer are found on the slopes of the Sierra Mountains, and antelope, deer and elk visit the northernmost valleys in the winter.
In the Washoe Mountains, as in the rest of the Sierra Nevada range, there is a heavy growth of conifers, extending down to the very valleys; but in many places these mountains have been almost deforested to provide timbers for the mines.
In the central, north-eastern and north-western sections, embracing the counties of Nye, Elko and Humboldt, the average annual rainfall varies from 7 to 8 in.; in the west-central section, at the foot of the Sierra, the average is about 10 in.
Though he was not actually defeated, his death in the pass of Muradel in the Sierra Morena, while on his way back to Toledo, occurred in circumstances which showed that no man could be what he claimed to be - "king of the men of the two religions."
Its territory is divided into two nearly equal parts by the eastern branch of the Sierra Madre Occidental, the northern part belonging to the great central plateau region, and the southern to an extremely broken region formed by the diverging branches of the Sierra Madre, with their wooded terraces and slopes and highly fertile valleys.
Long and has no ports or towns of importance, the slopes of the Sierra Madre del Pacifico being precipitous and heavily wooded and the coastbelt sandy, hot and malarial.
By the Sierra Alta, a range of moderate elevation traversing the whole peninsula from Catoche Point S.
Districts, as well as the greater part of the Sierra Alta, are destitute of large trees; but the coast-lands on both sides towards Tabasco and British Honduras enjoy a sufficient rainfall to support forests containing the mahogany tree, several valuable cabinet woods, vanilla, logwood and other dye-woods.
In piercing the Sierra Morena it forms a series of foaming rapids, and only begins to be navigable at Mertola, 42 m.
"Lesser Guadiana") rises in the Sierra Nevada, receives two large tributaries, the Fardes from the right and Barbata from the left, and enters the Guadalquivir near Ubeda, after a course of 95 m.
There are soap and flour mills and metallurgic factories in the town, and iron, copper and lead mines in the neighbouring Sierra de Almenara.
MOTRIL, a town of southern Spain in the province of Granada, at the foot of an offshoot of the Sierra Nevada and on the edge of a rich alluvial plain, about i m.
In Sierra Leone little success has been met with, but on the Gold Coast some cotton better than middling American has been grown, and the association has concluded an agreement with the government for an extension of its work.
The state occupies an elevated plateau, extending from two spurs of the Sierra Madre, called the Sierra Fria and Sierra de Laurel, eastward to the rolling fertile plains of its eastern and south-eastern districts.
Kilham's wife (Hannah Spurr, 1 77418 3 2), whom he married only a few months before his death, became a Quaker, and worked as a missionary in the Gambia and at Sierra Leone; she reduced to writing several West African vernaculars.
Alora, which is an ancient and picturesque town, with several Moorish ruins, occupies an outlying hill of the Sierra de Tolox, and overlooks a fertile valley where maize, sugar-cane and datepalms are cultivated.
Legislative sanction was, however, given to the establishment of the Sierra Leone Company, for the colonization of a district on the west coast of Africa and the discouragement of the slave trade there.
It was for some time thought that from Sierra Leone as a centre industry and civilization might be diffused amongst the nations of the continent; and in 1822 the colony (which in 1847 became the independent republic) of Liberia had been founded by Americans with a similar object; but in neither case have these expectations been adequately fulfilled.
Of Santiago, where the Sierra Maestra runs close to the sea, there is a very high abrupt shore.