The bitter invectives against Ammon, Moab, Edom, Philistia, Tyre, Sidon and Egypt, put into Yahweh's mouth, are based wholly on the fact that these peoples are regarded as hostile and hurtful to Israel; Babylonia, though nowise superior to Egypt morally, is favoured and applauded because it is believed to be the instrument for securing ultimately the prosperity of Yahweh's people.
From Sidon, and later from its more famous rival Tyre, the merchant adventurers of Phoenicia explored and colonized the coasts of the Mediterranean and fared forth into the ocean beyond.
Tribute was received from Tyre and Sidon; and Jehu, who was now king of Israel, sent his gifts of gold, silver, &c., to the conqueror.
It is interesting to find that Hadad-nirari claims tribute from Tyre, Sidon and Beth-Omri (Israel), also from Edom and Palastu (Philistia).
After the Passover he went to Caesarea, where he had games performed in honour of Claudius, and the inhabitants of Tyre and Sidon waited on him to sue for peace.
Two Aegean vases were found at Sidon in 1885, and many fragments of Aegean and especially Cypriote pottery have been turned up during recent excavations of sites in Philistia by the Palestine Fund.
In Sidon (1102) and in Tyre (1123).
In IIIo, for example, he was enabled to capture Sidon by the aid of Sigurd of Norway, the Jorsalafari, who came to the Holy Land with a fleet of 55 ships, starting in 1107, and in a three years' "wandering," after the old Norse fashion, fighting the Moors in Spain, and fraternizing with the Normans in Sicily.
Some of these names can be readily identified, such as Aleppo, Kadesh, Sidon, and the like, as well as many in Palestine.
She had temples at Sidon and at Tyre (whence her worship was transplanted to Carthage), and the Philistines probably venerated her at Ascalon (I Sam.
ZENO OF SIDON, Epicurean philosopher of the first century B.C., and contemporary of Cicero.
The earliest extant list, doubtless compiled from the numerous guide books then current in the Greek world, is that of the epigrammatist Antipater of Sidon (2nd century B.C.).
We know that in 498 he was staying at Edessa l; in or about 507, according to Theophanes, he was summoned by the emperor to Constantinople; and he finally presided at a synod at Sidon which was the means of procuring the replacement of Flavian by Severus.
Among the bare summits still farther south are the long ridge of Jebel el-Baruk (about 7000 ft.), the Jebel Niha, with the Tau'amat Niha (about 6100 ft.), near which is a pass to Sidon, and the Jebel Rihan (about 5400 ft.).
Arsuf and Caesarea were captured in 1101; Acre in 1104; Beirut and Sidon in I I Io (the latter with the aid of the Venetians and Norwegians).
Then the king attempted to subjugate Egypt, but two expeditions were unsuccessful, and, in consequence, Sidon and the other Phoenician towns, and the princes of Cyprus, rebelled against Persia and defeated the Persian generals.
The coast and, descending from Sidon, took Jaffa, Beth-dagon, Beneberak, Ekron and Timnah (all in the district ascribed to the southern Dan).
With Tyre and Sidon they are condemned for plundering Judah, and for kidnapping its children to sell to the Greeks (Joel iii.
31 (journey to Tyre and Sidon and back through Decapolis); viii.
So we have thus a weight of 207-191 in Egypt on marked weights, joining therefore completely with the Aeginetan unit in Egypt of 199 to 186, and coinage of 199, and strongly connected with Syria, where a double mina of Sidon (18) is 10,460 or 50 x 209.2.
As Esarhaddon entered Nineveh, on his triumphal return from Sidon, through Rebit-Ninua, it is probable that this name covered the western suburbs.
Like Aphrodite and Adonis in Syria, Baal and Astarte at Sidon, and Isis and Osiris in Egypt, the Great Mother and Attis formed a duality which symbolized the relations between Mother Earth and her fruitage.
Sidon, Tyre and Aradus, though now connected with the mainland, were built originally upon islands; the Phoenicians preferred such sites, because they were convenient for shipping and easily defended against attack.
9 now Sarafand), Sidon (now Saida), Berytus (Biruta in Egyptian, Biruna in the Amarna tablets, now Beirut), Byblus (in Phoen.
North of Sidon (Gen.
Sidon, the " first-born " of Canaan, is classed among the descendants of Ham; but the table of nations in Gen.
3) the Phoenicians, who had long been settled on the coast and occupied Sidon, founded Tyre in the year before the fall of Troy; possibly the date 1198 B.C., given by Menander of Ephesus (in Jos.
For the geography and civilization of Canaan about 1400 B.C. we have valuable evidence in the Egyptian papyrus Anastasi I., which mentions Kepuna (Gubna, Gebal-Byblus) the holy city, and continues: " Come then to Berytus, to Sidon, to Sarepta.
Divided; Aradus, Simyra, Sidon supported the rebellion; Ribhabad, the vassal of Byblus, and Abi-melech, king of Tyre, held out for Egypt; but while all the towns made professions of fidelity, they were scheming for their own interests, and in the end Egypt lost them all except Byblus.
" washed his weapons in the great sea," and exacted tribute from the kings of Tyre, Sidon, Byblus and other cities, including Arvad (Keilinschr.
Was not only king of Tyre, as the Assyrian inscription calls him, but of Sidon too; and further, that by this time Tyre had established a colony in Cyprus (q.v.).
Elulaeus IX., in Assyrian Lull, who ruled under the name of Pylas, was king of Tyre, Sidon, and other cities at this time (c. 725-690), and at the beginning of his reign suffered from an invasion by Shalmaneser IV.
In the great campaign of 701 Sennacherib came down upon the revolting provinces; he forced Lull., king of Sidon, to fly, for refuge to Cyprus, took his chief cities, and set up Tuba'lu (Ethbaal) as king, imposing a yearly tribute ii.
Sennacherib, however, so far accomplished his object as to break up the combination of Tyre and Sidon, which had grown into a powerful state.'
At Sidon the successor of Ethbaal was Abd-milkath; in alliance with a Cilician chief he rebelled against Esarhaddon about the year 678, with disastrous consequences.
Sidon was annihilated; Abd-milkath fell into the hands of Esarhaddon, who founded a new Sidon on the mainland, peopled it with foreigners, and called it after his own name.
The old name, however, survived in popular usage; but the character of the city was changed, and till the time of Cyrus the kingdom of Sidon ceased to exist ii.
22) in 604 to the approaching downfall .538 B.C. of the kings of Tyre and Sidon and the coast-land beyond the sea, i.e.
To displace the Chaldaean supremacy; he defeated Tyre and Sidon, and terrorized the other cities into submission (Herod.
There seems to have been no struggle; the great siege and the subsequent civil disorders had exhausted Tyre, and Sidon took its place as the leading state.
His power, however, was limited by the wealthy merchant families, who possessed great influence in public affairs; thus it was possible for war or peace to be decided at Tyre in the king's absence, or at Sidon against his will (Arrian ii.
9); at Sidon this council consisted of 100 members (Diod.
Inscriptions of the 3rd and 2nd centuries B.C. mention a Rab (chief) in Sidon, Cyprus and Gaulus (Gozo); what his position was it is difficult to say; in the colonies he may have been a district governor.
Under the Persians a federal bond was formed comprising Sidon, Tyre and Aradus, whose duty it was to contribute 300 triremes to the Persian fleet (Herod.
At this period Sidon occupied the position of leading state; in the fleet her king ranked next to Xerxes and before the king of Tyre (Herod.
87); his court was famed for its luxury; and the extent to which phil-Hellenic tendencies prevailed at this time in Sidon is shown by the royal sarcophagi, noble specimens of Greek art, which have been excavated in the necropolis of the city.
A new revolt of Sidon against the Persians took place under King Tennes owing to the insults offered to the Sidonians at the federal diet in Tripolis.
The last king of Sidon was Straton II.
Hence Aradus, Byblus, Sidon and Tyre issued a coinage of their own, of which many specimens exist: the coins are stamped as a rule with emblem or name of the city, sometimes with the name of the ruler.'
3760), may be derived from the story of Abdalonymus of Sidon mentioned below.
When Alexander the Great entered Phoenicia after the battle of Issus (333 B.C.), the kings were absent with the Persian fleet in the Aegean; but the cities of Aradus, Byblus and The Sidon welcomed him readily, the last-named showing special zeal against Persia.
Among the Phoenician states we know most about Sidon during this period.
For at the end of the 4th and the beginning of the 3rd century we have evidence of a native dynasty in the important inscriptions of Tabnith, Eshmun-`azar and Bod-`ashtart, and in the series of inscriptions (repeating the same text) discovered at Bostan esh-Shekh near Sidon (NSI.
Berytus was destroyed by the usurper Trypho in 140 B.C. Tyre in 120 and Sidon in 111 received complete independence, and inaugurated new eras from these dates.
Phoenicia was incorporated into the Roman province of Syria; Aradus, Sidon, Tyre and Tripolis were confirmed in their rights of self-government and in the possession of their territories.
In 14 B.C. Augustus rebuilt Berytus as a Roman colony and stationed two legions there; later on Ptolemais, Tyre and Sidon received colonial status.
The iron and copper mines of Cyprus (not Sidon, as Homer implies, Od.
The finest sarcophagi that have been found in the necropolis of Sidon (now in the Imperial Museum, Constantinople) are not Phoenician at all, but exquisite specimens of Greek art.
Not a vestige remains of the great sanctuary of Melqarth at Tyre; a few traces of the temple of Adonis near Byblus were discovered by Renan, and a peculiar mausoleum, Burj alBezzaq, is still to be seen near Amrit; recent excavations at Bostan esh-Shekh near Sidon have unearthed parts of the enclosure or foundations of the temple of Eshmun (NSI.
She represented the principle of fertility and generation; references to her cult at Gebal, Sidon, Ashkelon, in Cyprus at Kition and Paphos, in Sicily at Eryx, in Gaulus, at Carthage, are frequent in the inscriptions and elsewhere.
Two or three other deities may be mentioned here: Eshmun, the god of vital force and healing, worshipped at Sidon especially, but also at Carthage and in the colonies, identified by the Greeks with Asclepius; Melqarth, the patron deity of Tyre, identified with Heracles; Reshef or Reshuf, the " flame " or " lightning " god, especially popular in Cyprus and derived originally from Syria, whom the Greeks called Apollo.
Closer intimacy with the Greek world naturally brought about modifications in the character of the native gods, which became apparent when Ba'al of Sidon or Baal-shamem was identified with Zeus, Tanith with Demeter or Artemis, 'Anath with Athena, &c.; the notion of a supreme Ba'al, which finds expression in the Greek 1 3 Xos and (aaXris or 131 7 XOns (the goddess of Byblus), was no doubt encouraged by foreign influences.
He married Jezebel, the daughter of the king of Sidon, and the alliance was doubtless the means of procuring him great riches, which brought pomp and luxury in their train.
In the and and 1st centuries B.C. Apollodorus, nicknamed laprorupavvos (" Lord of the Garden "), and Zeno of Sidon (who describes Socrates as " the Attic buffoon ": Cic. De nat.