But it must be reckoned among the languages of Italy because of the well-supported tradition of the early existence of the Sicels in Latium (see SIcuLI).
Zancle was first founded, no doubt on the site of an earlier settlement, by pirates from Cumae, and again more regularly settled, after an unknown interval, by settlers from Cumae under Perieres, and from Chalcis under Crataemenes, in the first quarter of the 8th century B.C. Mylae must have been occupied as an outpost very soon afterwards, but the first regular colony of Zancle was Himera, founded in 648 B.C. After the capture of Miletus by the Persians in 494 B.C. Skythes, king of Zancle, invited the Ionians to come and settle at KaXrt 'AKT), then in the occupation of the Sicels (the modern Marina di Caronia, 25 m.
The island itself, Zuc8364;X(a, Sicilia, plainly takes its name from the Sicels (IuceXoi, Siculi), a people whom we find occupying a great part of the island, chiefly east of the river Gela.
That the Sicels spoke a tongue closely akin to Latin is plain from several Sicel words which crept into Sicilian Greek, and from the Siceliot system of weights and measures - utterly unlike anything in old Greece.
The more advanced Sicels had their hill-forts also, but they had learned the advantages of the sea, and they already had settlements on the coast when the Greeks came.
After the failure of Ducetius to re-establish the Sicel nationality, Greek civilization triumphed over that of the Sicels entirely, and it has not yet been possible to trace the survivals of the latter.
Our earlier notices of Sicily, of Sicels and Sicans, in the Homeric poems and elsewhere, are vague and legendary.
Among the earlier inhabitants the Sicels were already becoming adopted Greeks.
That city now became the centre of a greater dominion over both Greeks and Sicels than the island had ever before seen.
When the power of Hiero passed in 467 B.C. to his brother Thrasybulus the freedom of Syracuse was won by a combined movement of Greeks and Sicels, and the Greek cities gradually settled down as they had been before the tyrannies, only with a change to democracy in their constitutions.
552), and the evidence of contemporary inscriptions (I) for a Selinuntine victory over some un- of Sicels known enemy (possibly over Motya also), (2)for dealings between Athens and Segesta with reference to Halicyae, a Sican town.
From his native hill-top of Menae, rising above the lake dedicated to the Palici, the native deities whom Sicels and Greeks alike honoured, he brought down his people to the new city of Palicae in the plain.
Roughly speaking, while the Sicels of the plain country on the east coast became subject to Syracuse, most of those in other parts of the island remained independent.
The war was undertaken on behalf of Segesta; the Sicels gave Athens valuable help; the greater barbarian powers out of Sicily also came into play.
By this time the other Greek cities were stirred to help, while Sicels and Sicans joined Hannibal.
Leontini, latterly a Syracusan fort, as well as Messana and all the Sicels, were declared independent, while Dionysius was acknowledged as master of Syracuse (Diodorus xiii.
Towards the native races his policy varied according to momentary interests; but on the whole his reign tended to bring the Sicels more and more within the Greek pale.
Naxos was settled by Sicels; Leontini was again merged in Syracuse.
In the first war with Carthage the Greek cities under Carthaginian dominion or dependence helped him; so did Sicans and Sicels, which last had among them some stirring leaders; Elymian Segesta clave to Carthage.
Dionysius took the Phoenician stronghold of Motye; but Himilco recovered it, destroyed Messana, founded the hill-town of Tauromenium above Naxos for Sicels who had joined him, defeated the fleet of Dionysius off Catana and besieged Syracuse.
Many of the Sicels forsook him; Acragas declared herself independent; Carthage herself again took the field.
Yet they too could be brought under Greek influences; they were distant kinsfolk of the Sicels, and the forerunners of Rome.
The spread of Hellenic culture among the Sicels had in return made a Greek home for many Sicel beliefs, traditions and customs. Bucolic poetry is the native growth of Sicily; in the hands of Theocritus it grew out of the germs supplied by Epicharmus and Sophron into a distinct and finished form of the art.
Under the rule of the elder and younger Dionysius in the 4th century, the hellenization of the Sicels in the interior of Sicily seems to have become complete (Freeman, History of Sicily, ii.
The Libyans are accompanied by allies whose names, Sherden, Shekelesh, Ekwesh, Lukku, Teresh, suggest identifications with Sardinians, Sicels, Achaeans, Lycians and Tyrseni or Etruscans.
Above the railway station, and was founded by the Carthaginian Himilco in 397 B.C. for a friendly tribe of Sicels, after the destruction, by Dionysius the Elder of Syracuse, of the neighbouring city of Naxos.