Before reaching the paper the light passes through perforations in two iron plates which are, in fact, the pole pieces of a strong electromagnet; between these is an aluminium shutter which is attached to two parallel wires or thin strips.
When there is no current the shutter covers the perforations and no light passes, but when a current traverses the wires they are depressed by electromagnetic action, carrying the shutter with them, and a quantity of light proportional to the current strength is admitted through the perforations.
When a subscriber called (by turning the handle of his magneto- 'generator), the shutter of the annunciator associated with his line dropped.
The conversation was finished either of the subscribers could release the shutter of the clearing-out drop by turning his generator handle, and the operator thus notified of the fact removed the plugs and discontinued the connexion.
This apparatus has two coils, one of which, connected across the line, is provided for the purpose of projecting the shutter, while the other is intended for its restoration and is joined in a local circuit arranged to be closed when a plug is inserted in any one of the associated jacks.
- The invention of this instrument has generally been ascribed, as in the ninth edition of this work, to the famous Neapolitan savant of the 16th century, Giovanni Battista della Porta, but as a matter of fact the principle of the simple camera obscura, or darkened chamber with a small aperture in a window or shutter, was well known and in practical use for observing eclipses long before his time.
The sun shining, he fixed a round glass speculum (orbem e vitro) in a window-shutter, and then closing it the images of outside objects would be seen transmitted through the aperture on to the opposite wall, or better, a white paper screen suitably placed.
The size of the discharge aperture can be varied by means of a flexible wooden shutter sliding in a groove in a cast iron plate, curved to the slope of the casing.
2) represent a :small hole in the shutter of a darkened room, and OS a narrow beam of sunlight which is allowed to fall on a white screen so as to form an image of the sun at S.
- There are three main types of movable weirs, namely frame weirs, shutter weirs and drum weirs, which, however, present several variations in their arrangements.
The earliest form of shutter weir, known as a bear-trap, introduced in the United States in 1818, and subsequently erected across the Marne in France, consists of two wooden gates, each turning on a horizontal axis laid across the apron, inclined towards one another and abutting together at an angle in the centre when the weir is closed; the up-stream one serves as the weir, and the down-stream one forms its support, and both fall flat upon the apron for opening the weir.'
By means of chains worked by a winch .2 The shutter weir, introduced on the upper Seine about the middle of the 19th century and subsequently adopted for weirs across several rivers in France, Belgium and the United States, consists of a row of wooden or iron shutters turning on a horizontal axis a little above their centre of pressure, borne by an iron trestle at the back of each shutter, which is hinged to the apron of the weir, and supported when raised by an iron prop resting against an iron shoe fastened on the apron (fig.
The addition of a foot-bridge greatly facilitates the raising and lowering of these shutter weirs, and also aids the regulation of the discharge; but it renders this form of weir much more costly than the ordinary frame weir, and where large quantities of drift come down with sudden floods, the frames of the bridge are liable to be carried away, and therefore boats must be relied on for working the weir.
- Shutter Weir with Foot-bridge, Port a l'Anglais, Upper Seine.
Sometimes it is a loosely-fitting shutter or windowframe, a hanging drawer-handle, or a lamp-shade which will rattle; the timbers in a roof may creak, or a group of wine-glasses with their rims in contact may chatter.
In a much larger /!w/ - Shutter '60' inch Reflecting Telescope Dome and Building, Solar Observatory Mount Wilson,Calif.
The rays which stream through the shutter will be no longer remembered when the shutter is wholly removed.
There were many such schools in the pond, apparently improving the short season before winter would draw an icy shutter over their broad skylight, sometimes giving to the surface an appearance as if a slight breeze struck it, or a few rain-drops fell there.