The growth of an organic being is simply a process of enlargement, as a particle of dry gelatine may be swelled up by the intussusception of water; its death is a shrinkage, such as the swelled jelly might undergo on desiccation.
The general experience of the decade of the 'eighties was that of disappointing summers, harsh winters, falling prices, declining rents and the shrinkage of land values.
A large number of agricultural labourers were thus only in partial employment, and their withdrawal from the land was of minor importance as compared with the shrinkage in the number of those permanently employed.
As he foresaw, the shrinkage of the great empire into the realm of old France caused infinite disgust, a feeling fed every day by stories of the tactless way in which the Bourbon princes treated veterans of the Grand Army.
The career of Napoleon, which had lured France far away from the principles of 1789, now brought her back to that starting-point; just as, in the physical sphere, his campaigns from1796-1814had at first enormously swollen her bulk and then subjected her to a shrinkage still more portentous.
Such a rock is typically exemplified by a coarse-grained sandstone or conglomerate, while a limestone may be naturally porous, or, like the Trenton limestone of Ohio and Indiana, rendered so by its conversion into dolomite and the consequent production of cavities due to shrinkage - a change occurring only in the purer limestones.
A diminution of X thus leads to a simple proportional shrinkage of the diffraction pattern, attended by an augmentation of brilliancy in proportion to A-2.
From these causes a certain shrinkage is liable to occur, more evident in some parts of the body than in others.
The removal of the block led to the shrinkage of the lake and the formation of the Semliki, which found its way to the more northern lake - Albert Nyanza.
On the other hand, the shrinkage of the lake level caused the appearance in 1885 of an island where in 1879 there had been an expanse of shallow water.
The shrinkage of the rock-filling and the settlement of the workings /, Yan be greatly lessened by the use of hard rock with a minimum of fine stuff; but even so the advantage lies with the American system of timbering.
The change in volume of the experimental globe due to shrinkage under diminished pressure; this may be experimentally determined and amounts to between o 04 and o 16% of the volume of the globe.
The shrinkage of cereal crops has been mainly responsible for the idea that Massachusetts is agriculturally decadent.
Parallel to this shrinkage was the decrease in ranging sheep (82.0% from 1850-1900; 34.2% from 1890-1900), and cattle, once numerous in the hill counties of the west, and in the Connecticut Valley; Boston, then ranking after London as the second wool market of the world, and being at one time the chief packing centre of the country.
The shrinkage is the more noticeable in the throwing branch of the industry.
These cracks are probably due to shrinkage while setting, aggravated by changes in temperature.
Owing to the shrinkage of the soil in reclaimed lands, however, that is, lands which have been drained after fen or other reclamation, the sides of the polder are often higher than the middle, and it is necessary by means of small dams or sluices to make separate water-tight compartments (afpolderingen), each having its own unit of measurement.
A similar shrinkage has been displayed in the case of the protesting Alsace-Lorrainers, who re~,rrned only two deputies in.
The peace of Bromsebro was the first of the long series of treaties, extending down to our own days, which mark the progressive shrinkage of Danish territory into an irreducible minimum.
The function of the sand is simply that of a diluent to prevent undue shrinkage and cracking in drying.
Casting also is complicated by the shrinkage which occurs in cooling down from the molten state, and in some alloys by the formation of eutectics, and the liquation of some constituents.
The top of the grain becomes indented, owing to the drying and shrinkage of the starchy matter; the character of the indented surface varies with the height and thickness of the horny endosperm.
This great shrinkage in exchange caused considerable loss to the Indian government in remitting to Europe, and entailed hardship upon Anglo-Indians who received pensions or other payments in rupees, while on the other hand it supplied an artificial stimulus to the export trade by increasing the purchasing power of gold.
In April 1872 came the revulsion; there was a shrinkage of $60,000,000 in ten days; then in 1873 a tremendous advance, and in 1875 a final and disastrous collapse; in ten years thereafter the stock of the Comstock lode shrank from $3,000,000 to $2,000,000.
In the 1785 paper he proved the correctness of this supposition by showing that when electric sparks are passed through common air there is a shrinkage of volume owing to the nitrogen uniting with the oxygen to form nitric acid.
Low prices afterwards caused a large shrinkage in the output, but she is still classed among the principal producers.
The walls thus supported no load but their own weight, and were tied to the inner cage formed by the wall columns, interior columns, girders, and floors by anchors arranged to provide for the shrinkage of masonry in drying out which always occurs to a greater or less extent.
If we are dealing with comparatively recent periods there is no evidence of progressive change, but if we go to remote epochs and suppose the sun to have once been diffused in a nebulous state, it is clear that its shrinkage, in spite of radiation, has left it hotter, so that the shrinkage has outrun what would suffice to maintain its radiation.
This small surplus was obtained notwithstanding a further shrinkage in revenue.
Lamarck's penetrating genius is chiefly responsible for the shrinkage of the word Insecta, since it was he who, forty years after Linnaeus's death, set up and named the two great classes Crustacea and Arachnida (included by Linnaeus under Insecta as the order " Aptera "), assigning to them equal rank with the remaining Insecta of Linnaeus, for which he proposed the very appropriate class-name " Hexapoda."
The following table shows the growth of pasturage and the shrinkage of the crop areas since 1860.