The ore is mined in the ordinary way, by pick and shovel if soft, or by the aid of powder if necessary, and the funnel-shaped bottom of the pit is maintained at such an angle that little or no shovelling is required to bring the excavated material to the shaft.
A sharp-pointed planting stick, a wooden shovel, and a bronze-bladed hoe called a coati were the simple implements.
Formerly it was the practice to carry out such operations entirely by hand, men charging the retorts either by means of shovel or hand-scoop, and the coke produced being withdrawn with hand rakes.
The cost of mining by the milling method does not greatly exceed the cost of steam-shovel work.
The size, shape and design of the cars depend on the size of the mine passage and of the hoisting compartments of the shafts; on whether the cars are to be trammed by hand or hauled in trains; whether they are loaded by shovel or by gravity from a chute; and whether they are to be hoisted to the surface or used only for underground transport.
Shovel-boards, to hold in right (93) or left hand for scraping up the grain in winnowing, are usual in the XVIIIth Dynasty, and are figured in use in the Old Kingdom Pruning knives with curved blades (94) are Italic, and were made of iron by the Romans.
The implements used are two makes of iron-shod wooden ploughs; a large shovel, worked by three or five men, one working the handle, the others jerking the blade by ropes attached to it; a short sharp-pointed hoe, a bamboo rake, and a wooden barrow, all of rude construction.
James, the 3rd earl, an active sea captain who was all but lost in company with Sir Cloudesley Shovel, became knight of the Garter and lord high admiral and commander-in-chief in the Channel, he and his house being loyal supporters of the Hanoverian dynasty.
With Sir Cloudesley Shovel he took part in the capture of Gibraltar on the 21st of July 1704.
The dredges used in California are almost exclusively of the endless-chain bucket or steam-shovel pattern.
When he was done, he placed the mattock and shovel in the wheelbarrow and wheeled them down to the barn for her.