To many Japanese observers i seemed that the restoration of 1867 had merely transferred the ad ministrative authority from the Tokugawa Shogun to the clans c Satsuma and ChOshC. The KOko Shimbun severely attacked th two clans as specious usurpers.
About thirty years later the town fell into the hands of Hojo of Odawara, and on his overthrow by Hideyoshi and Iyeyasu, the castle was granted to the latter, who was the founder of the shogun house of Tokugawa.
The treaties lately concluded by the shogun with the foreign powers conceded the right to navigate the strait of Shimonoseki, leading to the Inland Sea.
The shogun having declared himself unable in the circumstances to give effect to the provision, the treaty powers determined to take the matter into their own hands.
Finding himself in command of a squadron which represented practically the whole of Japan's naval forces, he refused to acquiesce in the deposition of the Shogun, his liege lord, and, steaming off to Yezo (1867), proclaimed a republic and fortified Hakodate.