Shoddy apartments and an image in the mirror of a dirty toddler in a diaper.
Untold hours of do-it-yourself-manship and emergency repair had finally overcome poor septic design and generally shoddy workmanship to create communities of adequate comfort and living.
The chief industries are the manufacture of railway plant, cloth, wool, soap, shoddy, furniture, bricks and cement.
Cleveland is the headquarters of the largest shoddy mills in the country (value of product, 1905, $ 1, 0 84,594), makes much clothing (1905, $ 10, 4 26, 535), manu factures a large portion of the chewing gum made in the United States, and is the site of one of the largest refineries of the Standard Oil Company.
The textile industries (the making of carpets and rugs, cotton goods, cotton smallwares, dyeing and finishing textiles, felt goods, felt hats, hosiery and knit goods, shoddy, silk and silk goods, woollen goods, and worsted goods), employed 32.5% of all manufacturing wage earners in 1905, and their product ($271,369,816) was 24.1% of the total, and of this nearly one-half ($129,171,449) was in cotton goods, being 28.9% of the total output of the country, as compared with I I% for South Carolina, the nearest competitor of Massachusetts.
The town is a centre of the heavy woollen trade, and has extensive manufactures of army cloths, pilot cloths, druggets, flushings, &c. The working up of old material as "shoddy" is largely carried on.
Among the miscellaneous cloths made or made partly of cotton may be mentioned: waste cloths, made from waste yarns and usually coarse in texture; khaki cloth, made largely for military clothing in cotton as well as in woollen; cottonade, a name given to various coarse low cloths in the United States and elsewhere; lasting, which seems to be an abbreviation of "lasting cloth," a stiff, durable texture used in making shoes, &c.; bolting cloth, used in bolting or sifting; brattice cloth, a stout, tarred cloth made of cotton or wool and used for bratticing or lining the sides of shafts in mines; sponge cloths, used for cleaning machinery; shoddy and mungo, which though mainly woollen have frequently a cotton admixture; and splits, either plain or fancy, usually of low quality, which include any cloth woven two or three in the breadth of the loom and "split" into the necessary width.