A breakwater was therefore planned on the Monarch shoal, to double the available anchorage area and increase the frontage of deep-water wharves available in all weathers.
Much of this area is shoal water, but the accommodation available was largely increased by the removal during 1904-1908 of 24,000,000 tons of sand.
MELORIA, a rocky islet, surrounded by a shoal, almost opposite Leghorn.
Without the occurrence of any event worthy of being chronicled, till suddenly one night at ten o'clock the water was found to shoal, without any sign of breakers or land.
The waters near shore are shoal, and as there are few harbours of refuge of easy access navigation is dangerous in heavy storms. Around the lake the climate is equable, for, though the winter is cold and the summer hot, the waters of the lake modify the extremes, the mean temperature varying from 40° to 54° F.
On the 28th of September the first real battle of the war was fought off the Kentish Knock, a shoal opposite the coast of Essex.
Copenhagen lies on the east side of the island of Zealand; opposite it is the shoal known as the Middle Ground.
In the shoal waters about Juan Fernandez are found a species of codfish (possibly Gadus macrocephalus), differing in some particulars from the Newfoundland cod, and a large crayfish, both of which are caught for the Valparaiso market.
It is probable that 60 to 75% are reared from the spat in artificial parks, the remainder having been laid down for a time to increase in size and flavour in shoal waters along the coasts.
With flat and shelving shores, the shoal-banks off the main mouths of the delta form the chief danger to shipping, and this is guarded against by a good service of lighthouses and lightships.
Cape becomes bar, and plain shoal, and valley and gorge deep water and channel.
Natural gas, piped from the Kansas fields, is used for light and power, and electricity for commercial lighting and power is derived from plants on Spring River, near Vark, Kansas, and on Shoal creek.
There are besides many other safe anchorages about the coast, notably Shoal Bay and Kotara Anchorage in the South Andaman; Cadell Bay and the Turtle Islands in the North Andaman; and Outram Harbour and Kwangtung Strait in the archipelago.
An elevation of small extent is distinguished as a " dome " when it is more than 100 fathoms from the surface, a " bank " when it is nearer the surface than 100 fathoms but deeper than 6 fathoms, and a " shoal " when it comes within 6 fathoms of the surface and so becomes a serious danger to shipping.
Some of the sandbanks are dry; and no part of the shoal has a greater depth than 3 or 4 ft.
Detailed study of the cod shoals also showed that their composition was continually changing: in some years the shoal is composed of younger or older fish than the average and with this latter variation there are changes in the quantities of oil yielded per t,000 fish.
There are, therefore, a number of agencies, all of which operate in shoal waters on the lee side of islands, or in shallow lagoons in such regions as the Bahamas, and the result of all these is to throw down calcium carbonate from solution in sea-water as minute needle-shaped crystals or little balls of aragonite.
Amongst these are the dome, an isolated elevation rising steeply but not coming within too fathoms of the surface; the bank, an elevation coming nearer the surface than too fathoms, but not so near as 6 fathoms; and finally the shoal or reef, which comes within 6 fathoms of the surface, and so may constitute a danger to shipping.
To the east of the Middle Ground is another shoal known as Saltholm Flat, and there is a passage available for large ships between them.
Maximum depth of 640 fathoms, and then over a shoal of 60 fathoms goes down to 1200 fathoms in 22° 7' N.
In the deltas of shoal rivers, with a strong tide or current and no land visible, a 5 lb lead is substituted for the log-ship; the lead rests on the bottom, and the speed is obtained in a manner similar to that previously described.