Of Shiraz, not far from where the small river Pulwar flows into the Kur (Kyrus).
In 1821 Rich went to Basora, whence he made an excursion to Shiraz, visiting the ruins of Persepolis and the other remains in the neighbourhood.
At Shiraz he died of cholera on the 5th of October 1821.
Some rivers, notably the Kur (Kyros, Araxes) which flows into the Bakhtegan lake east of Shiraz, drain into inland depressions or lakes.
The capital of the province is Shiraz, and the subdivision in districts, the chief places of the districts and their estimated population, and the number of inhabited villages in each as they appear in lists dated 1884 and 1905 are shown on the following page.
In 1349 a great part of Maimand and of three little villages belonging to it became wakf (pious endowment) of the shrine at Shiraz of Mir Ahmed, surnamed Shah Chiragh, a son of Musa Kazim, the seventh imam of the Shiahs, and the remainder of the Maimand grounds was given to the shrine by Mir Habbib Ullah Sharifi and by Shah Ismail in 1504; the administration of the Maimand property as well as the guardianship of the shrine is still with the descendants of Mir Habbib Ullah.
In Persia Jews are often the victims of popular outbursts as well as of official extortion, but there are fairly prosperous communities at Bushire, Isfahan, Teheran and Kashan (in Shiraz they are in low estate).
From Shiraz, and has a population of about 9000.
Fuzuli showed far more originality than any of his predecessors; for, although his work is naturally Persian in form and in general character, it is far from being a mere echo from Shiraz or Isfahan.
From Sultanieh he proceeded by Kashan and Yazd, and turning thence followed a somewhat devious route by Persepolis and the Shiraz and Bagdad regions, to the Persian Gulf.
Persica, Persian tobacco, the source of the famous Shiraz tobacco, is regarded as only a variety of N.
The town is situated on the high road from Isfahan to Shiraz, 52 m.
Of Shiraz and S.W.
Of Shiraz, is surrounded by a mud-wall 3 m.
Lambs.-The sorts that primarily interest the fur trade in Europe and America are those from south Russia, Persia and Afghanistan, which are included under the following wholesale or retail commercial terms: Persian lamb, broadtail, astrachan, Shiraz, Bokharan and caracul lamb.
Astrachan, Shiraz and Bokharan lambs, size 22 by 9 in., are of a coarser, looser curl, and chiefly used for coat linings, while the Persians are used for outside of garments, collars, cuffs, stoles, muffs, hats and trimmings and gloves.
Blanford, lions are still numerous in the reedy swamps, bordering the Tigris and Euphrates, and also occur on the west flanks of the Zagros mountains and the oak-clad ranges near Shiraz, to which they are attracted by the herds of swine which feed on the acorns.
Part of the Gulf, the port for the Shiraz district of southern Persia, and Bandar `Abbas, at the entrance of the Gulf, being the chief centres of population.
He did his best to remedy the misery caused by the intestine wars, repaired the ruined mosques and other public edifices, founded hospitals and libraries - his library in Shiraz was one of the wonders of the world - and improved irrigation.
He then made the pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina, and visited the shrine of Ali at Mashhad-Ali, travelling thence to Basra, and across the mountains of Khuzistan to Isfahan, thence to Shiraz and back to Kufa and Bagdad.
In Persia, also, wines are made, especially in the Shiraz district.
Khorasan to the Perso-Afghan border, its western limit being indicated by a long line to the northwest from near Shiraz, taking in the whole upper country to the Russian frontier and the Elburz; (2) the provinces south and south-west of the Caspian; (3) a narrow strip of wooded country south-west of the Zagros range, from the Diyala River in Turkey in Asia to Shiraz; (4) the Persian side of the Shatt-el-Arab, and Aralictan, east of the Tigris; and (5) the shores of the Persian Gulf and Baluchistan.
Including the oak-forests of Shiraz with the wooded slopes of the Zagros, he found in his third division that, however little known was the tract, it appeared to contain, like the second, a Palaearctic fauna with a few peculiar species.
Priests, merchants, villagers, especially about Shiraz, townsmen, shopkeepers, doctors and lawyers wear it very long, often nearly to the heels.
At Shiraz it is often of fine cotton, and elaborately ornamented with black embroidery.
Isfahan (100,000); Meshed (8o,ooo); Kerman, Resht, Shiraz (6o,ooo); Barfurush, Kazvin, Yezd (5o,ooo); Hamadan, Kermnshah (40,000); Kashan, Khoi, Urmia (35,000); Birjend, Burujird, Bushire, Dizful, Kum, Senendij (Sinna), Zenjan (25,00o to 30,000); Amol, Ardebil, Ardistan, Astarabad, Abekuh, Barn, Bander, Abbasi, Bander Lingah, Damghan, Dilman, Istahbanat, Jahnim, Khunsar, Kumishah, Kuchan, Marand, Maragha, Nishapur, Sari, Sabzevar, Samnan, Shahrud, Shushter (1o,ooo to 20,000).
The tumbaku for export is chiefly produced in the central districts round about Isfahan and near Kashan, while the tumbaku of Shiraz, Fessa, and Darab in Fars, considered the best in Persia, is not much appreciated abroad.
The principal opium-producing districts are those of Shiraz, Isfahan, Yezd, Kerman, Khorasan, Burujird and Kermnshh.
About three-fifths of this number belong to the diocese of Azerbaijan, with a bishop at Tabriz, and reside in the cities of Tabriz, KhoI, Selmas, Urmia and Maragha, and in about thirty villages close to the north-western frontier; the other two-fifths, under the diocese of Isfahan, with a bishop in Julfa, reside in Teheran, Hamadan, Julfa, Shiraz, Bushire, Resht, Enzeli and other towns, and in some villages in the districts of Chahar Mahal, Feridan, Barbarud, Kamareh, Kazaz, Kharakan, &c. Many Persian Armenians are engaged in trade and commerce, and some of their merchants dispose of much capital, but the bulk live on the proceeds of agriculture and are poor.
In June 1908 it had 4 places of worship (Julfa, Yezd, Kerman, Shiraz), 5 schools (Julfa, Isfahan, Yezd, Kerman and Shiraz).
The Jews in Persia number about 36,000, and are found in nearly all cities of the country, but communities with synagogues and priests exist only in the larger cities like Teheran, Isfahan, Yezd, Shiraz, Hamadan, &c.
The Zoroastrians, commonly called gabrs, numbering about 9000, reside principally in the cities and villages of Yezd and Kerman, and only three or four hundred live in Teheran, Kashan, Isfahan and Shiraz, some engaged in trade and commerce, but most of them employed in agricultural work and gardening.
Various Armenian firms, one with branches at many places in Persia and Russia, also do banking business, while various European firms at Tabriz, Teheran, Isfahan, Shiraz and Bushire, facilitate remittances between Europe and Persia.
Uosain fought with the Mozaffarids of Shiraz and the Black Sheep Turkomans (Kara Kuyunli) of Armenia,with the latter of whom he ultimately entered into alliance.
His son Mobariz ud-din Mahommed, who followed him in 1313, became governor in Fars under Abu Said, in Kerman in 1340, and subsequently made himself independent at Fars and Shiraz (1353) and in Isfahan.
From Isfahan he passed on to Shiraz, and thence returned in triumph to his own capital of Samarkand.
Five years later he subdued Mazandaran, and later still he was again at Shiraz, having effected the subjugation of Luristan and other provinces in the west.
Kum and Tauris or Tabriz (then the capital) were also visited by the Italian envoys following in the royal suite; and the incidental notice of these cities, added to Contarinis formal statement that the extensive country of U~suncassan is bounded by the Ottoman Empire and by Caramania, and that Siras (Shiraz) is comprehended in it, proves that at least Azerbaijan, Irak, and the main part of the provinces to the south, inclusive of Fars, were within the dominions of the reigning monarch.
This last account is extremely probable, and would show that the young Turkoman had wished to make one grand effort to save Isfahan and Shiraz (with Kazvin and the neighboring country), these being, after the capital Tabriz, the most important cities of Uzun ~iasans Persia.
His ifi-starred father, at no time more than a nominal ruler, was at Shiraz, apparently deserted by soldiers and people.
He was summoned to Shiraz to put down rebellion in Fars; and before he could drive out the Uzbegs, he had to secure himself against Turkish inroads threatening from the west.
Among many other sufferers Imam Kuli Khan, conqueror of Lar and Hormuz, the son of one of Abbass most famous generals, founder of a college at Shiraz, and otherwise a public benefactor, fell a victim tO his savage cruelty.
Karim took refuge behind the walls of Shiraz, and all the efforts of the enemy to dislodge him were ineffectual.
He built the great bazaar of Shiraz, had a tomb constructed over the remains of Hafiz, and repaired the turbat at the grave of Sadi, outside the walls.
The seizure of the citadel at Shiraz by the adherents of the former, among whom were the more influential of the Zends, may have induced him to adopt this measure as one of prudent conciliation.
Aga Mahommed, son of Mahommed Ilasan, the Kajar chief of Astarabad, a prisoner at large in Shiraz, was in the environs of that city awaiting intelligence of the old kings decease, and, hearing it, instantly escaped to Mazandaran, there to gather his tribesmen together and compete for the crown of Persia.
Zaki, enraged at his nephews desertion, marched out of Shiraz towards Isfahan.
When intelligence of these events reached Kerm~n, Sadik Khan hastened to Shiraz, proclaimed himself king in place of Abu l-Fatb Khan, whom he declared incompe- ~ M d tent, to reign, and put out the eyes of the young prince.
The campaign ended in the capture of Shiraz and assumption of sovereignty by Ali Murad, who caused Sadik Khan to be put to death.
~He died, on his way from the former place to Isfahan, and was succeeded by Jiafir, son of Sadik,i who reigned at Shiraz, assisted in the government by an able but unprincipled kalantar, or head magistrate, named Hajji Ibrahim.
He had hastened to Shiraz on hearing of his fathers death and received a warm welcome from the ~
Lutf All Khan bad not been many months on the throne when Aga Mahommed advanced to attack him, and invested the city of Shiraz, but retreated soon afterwards to Teheran, which he had made the capital of his dominions.
Lutf Ali Khan was suddenly deserted by the whole of his army, except seventy faithful followers; and when he retreated to Shiraz he found the gates closed against him by Hajji Ibrahim, who held the city for the Kajar chief, Thence falling back upon Bushire, he found that the sheikh of that town had also betrayed him.
The successful Kajar then entered Shiraz, and promoted the traitor Hajji Ibrahini to be his vizier.
In 1783, when the strength of the Persian monarchy was concentrated upon Isfahan and Shiraz, the Georgian tsar Heraclius entered into an agreement with the empress Catherine by which all connection with the shah was disavowed, and a quasi-vassalage to Russia substitutedthe said empire extending her aegis of protection over her new ally.
An engagement which took place near Kumishah, on the road between Isfahan and Shiraz, having been successful, the English commander pushed on to the latter town, where the two rebel princes were seized and imprisoned.
At Isafahan, Shiraz and Kerman serious riots took place, which weie with difficulty suppressed.
In the article on BABYIsM, the facts as to the life of the l3ab, Mirza Ali Mahommed of Shiraz, and the progress of the Babiist movement, are separately noticed.
Serious rioting arose only in Shiraz and Fars, where some persons lost their lives and a number of caravans were looted.
I67o), and Shaukat, the governor of ShIraz under Fath All Shah.
This favorite story was treated again by FasihI JurjanI (5th century of the Hegira), and by many modern poets as Damiri, who died under the ~afawI shah Mahommed (1577 1586; 985994 A.H.), Nmi, the historiographer of the Zand dynasty, and Uosain of Shiraz under Fatl~ All Shah, the last two flourishing towards the beginning of the present century.