Tion Act of the 9th of October 1651, by which colonial goods could only be imported to England in British ships and all foreign trade to the colonies was restricted to products of the exporting country, sought to bind the colonies to England and to support the interests of the shipowners and merchants, and therefore of the English maritime supremacy, the act being, moreover, memorable as the first public measure which treated the colonies as a whole and as an integral part of Great Britain.
Shipowners, barge owners, the railway companies interested, &c. Rival schemes, however, were proposed by the London County Council,which proposed to take over the entire control through a committee, by the City Corporation, which suggested that it should appoint instead of 3 members to the new board; and by the London Chamber of Commerce, which proposed a Harbour Trust of ex-officio and elected members.
In 1897 all shipowners engaging in the coasting trade of the colony were compelled to pay the colonial rate of wages.
The principal shipowners at this period were the clergy, who embarked the wealth of their religious houses in commercial enterprises.
Their provisions by restricting competition naturally tended to raise freights, and by restricting employment made it difficult for shipowners to man their vessels.
His efforts to reconstruct the Spanish navy were attacked both by the apostles of retrenchment and by those who saw in the shipbuilding contracts an undue favoring of the foreigner; the Marine Industries Protection Act was denounced as favoring the large shipowners and exporters at the expense of the smaller men; the Compulsory Education Act as a criminal assault on the rights of the family.