After an apprenticeship in a counting-house, he led a seafaring life for several years, and became a shipowner and merchant.
High; Chalmers hospital (founded by Alexander Chalmers of Clunie, a merchant and shipowner of the town); a masonic hall of tasteful design; and the academy, a modern structure in the Grecian style, to which there is attached an extensive museum, containing examples of the early mechanical genius of James Ferguson, the astronomer.
The conclusion reached, after careful investigation by Dr Jorge, the medical officer of health, that the commencement really dated from June, is confirmed by the fact that about that time the riverside labourers, who were first affected, began to notice an illness among themselves sufficiently novel to attract their attention and that of an English shipowner, who from their description suspected plague.
Arguments have been founded upon the descriptions of the blind singers in the Odyssey, with their songs inspired directly by the Muse; upon the appeals of the poet to the Muses, especially in such a place as the opening of the Catalogue; upon the Catalogue itself, which is a kind of historical document put into verse to help the memory; upon the shipowner in the Odyssey, who has " a good memory for his cargo," &c. It may be answered, however, that much of this is traditional, handed down from the time when all poetry was unwritten.
Rule Ix.-Cargo, Ship'S Materials, And Stores Burnt For Fuel Cargo, ship's materials and stores, or any of them, necessarily burnt for fuel for the common safety at a time of peril, shall be admitted as G.A., when and only when an ample supply of fuel had been provided; but the estimated quantity of coals that would have been consumed, calculated at the price current at the ship's last port of departure at the date of her leaving, shall be charged to the shipowner and credited to the G.A.
It is not sufficient "that an expenditure should have been made to benefit both cargo owner and shipowner."' Thus expenses incurred after ship and cargo are in safety, say at a port of refuge, are not generally, by English law, to be treated as G.A.; although the putting into port may have refuge ex- been for safety, and therefore a G.A.
Where such expenditure has been incurred by the owner of one interest, generally by the shipowner, the repayment to him by the other interests ought not to be wholly dependent upon the subsequent safety of those interests at the ultimate destination.
Arose in the case of the Brigella (1893, P. 189), where a shipowner had incurred expenses which would have been the subject of G.A.
Marcion was a wealthy shipowner, belonging to Sinope in Pontus.