810, a celebrated Buddhist priest, Kkai, who had spent several years studying in China, compounded out of Buddhism, Confucianism and ShintO a system of doctrine called Ryobu Shinto (Dual Shinto), the prominent tenet of which was that the ShintO deities were merely transmigrations of Buddhist divinities.
The latters magnum opus, Kojikiden (Exposition of the Record of Ancient Matters), declared by Chamberlain to be perhaps the most admirable work of which Japanese erudition can boast, consists of 44 large volumes, devoted to elucidating the Kojiki and resuscitating the ShintO cult as it existed in the earliest days.
Much more memorable, however, was a library formed by Iyeyasus grandson the feudal chief of Mito (1662I 700), who not only collected a vast quantity of books hitherto scattered among Shinto and Buddhist monasteries and private houses, but also employed a number of scholars to compile a history unprecedented in magnitude, the Dai-Nihon-shi.
During the medieval era of internecine strife the Buddhist priests were the sole depositaries of literary talent, and seeing that, from the close of the 14th century, the ShintO mime (Kagura) was largely employed by the military class to invo,~ce or acknowledge the assistance of the gods, the monks of Buddha set themselves to compose librettos for this mime, and the performance, thus modified, received the name of NO.
The latter were often little more than historical novels founded on facts; and the former, though nominally intended to engraft the doctrines of Buddhism and Shinto upon the philosophy of China, were really of rationalistic tendency.
None of the magnificence of the Buddhist temple belongs to the Shinto shrine.
The shrines ShInt~ of Ise, which may be called the Mecca of Shinto Architecdevotees, are believed to present to-day precisely the lure.
Originally designed as a perch for fowls which sang to the deities at daybreak, this toni subsequently came to be erroneously regarded as a gateway characteristic of the ShintO shrine.
But although the use of the potters wheel had long been understood, the objects produced were simple utensils tc contain offerings of rice, fruit and fish at the austere ceremonials of the Shinto faith, jars for storing seeds, and vessels for commor domestic use.
Roads constructed for the benefit of Shinto shrines, Buddhist temples, or to facilitate the cultivation of rice-fields and arable land.
Buddhist and Shinto temples are numerous.
They are designated by the same name, shin; and they are in The Japanese name is tsuchi, " heaven and earth," a translation of the Chinese ten-chi, Aston, Shinto (1 9 o 5), p. 35.
Onwards; and the great Shinto revival of the r8th century brought the doctrine again into prominence.
Satow, " Revival of Pure Shinto," Trans.
Hirata answered by anticipation the modern reproach against Shinto, founded on the absence of any definite morality connected with it, by laying down the simple rule, " Act so that you need not be ashamed before the Kami of the unseen."
11 Satow, " Revival of Pure Shinto," Trans.