10), for one of the four chief cities, Akkad, Babel, Erech and Calneh, which constituted the nucleus of the kingdom of Nimrod in the land of Shinar or Babylonia.
Sumer has been supposed to be the original of the Biblical Shinar; but Shinar represented northern rather than southern Babylonia, and was probably the Sankhar of the Tell el-Amarna tablets (but see Sumer).
Of these, Amraphel, king of Shinar (i.e.
The identity of Shinar and Shumer is also demon= strated by the Septuagint renderindof Shinar in Isaiah xi.
In short, there can be no doubt that the biblical name Shinar was practically equivalent to the mat Shumeri u Akkadi= non-Semitic Kengi-Uri of the Babylonian inscriptions.
Furthermore, the fact that the Syriac Sen'ar = Shinar was later used to denote the region about Bagdad (northern Babylonia) does not necessarily prove that Shinar-Shumer meant only northern Babylonia, because, when the term Sen'ar was applied to the Bagdad district the great southern Babylonian civilization had long been forgotten and " Babylonia " really meant only what we now know as northern Babylonia.
This gave rise to the later inaccurate forms: Greek, Senaar; Syriac, Sen'ar; and biblical Hebrew, Shinar = Skingar.
(1900), pp. 75 sqq., 343, 344, 55 1, 55 2; article " Shinar " in Hastin g s's Diet.