With this view, the cabinet of St Petersburg, at the close of the Chino-Japanese War in 18 9 5, objected to all annexations by Japan in that quarter, and insisted on having the treaty of Shimonoseki modified accordingly.
In 1895 the island was ceded to Japan by the treaty of Shimonoseki at the close of the Japanese war.
Some time elapsed before this example found followers, but ultimately a programme was elaborated and carried out having for its basis a grand trunk line extending the whole length of the main island from Aomori on the north to Shimonoseki on the south, a distance of 1153 m.; and a continuation of the same line throughout the length of the southern island of KiQshiO, from Moji on the northwhich lies on the opposite side of the strait from Shimonosekito Kagoshima on the south, a distance of 2323/4 m.; as well as a line from Moji to Nagasaki, a distance of 1631/8 m.
Of this main road the state undertook to build the central section (376 m), between TOkyO and KObe (via Kioto); the Japan railway company undertook the portion (457 m.) northward of Tokyo to Aomori; the Sanyo railway company undertook - the portion (320 In.) southward of Tokyo to Shimonoseki; and the KiOshiO railway company undertook the lines in Kishi.
The trains of the Tokai - do line, starting from the Shimbashi station, run westwards to Kobe, thence to Shimonoseki, at the western end of the main island, a distance of 700 m.
But the whole course of this expansion had been watched with suspicion by Japan, from the time of the Saghalien incident of 1875, when the island power, then barely emerging from the feudal age, had to cede her half of the island to Russia, to the Shimonoseki treaty of 1895, when the powers compelled her to forego the profits of her victory over China.
The treaties lately concluded by the shogun with the foreign powers conceded the right to navigate the strait of Shimonoseki, leading to the Inland Sea.
Hang-chow-fu was declared open to foreign trade in 1896, in pursuance of the Japanese treaty of Shimonoseki.