Over a large part of England this was fixed at 1200 shillings, or six times that of the ceorl.
DRAGOMAN (from the Arabic terjuman, an interpreter or translator; the same root occurs in the Hebrew word targum signifying translation, the title of the Chaldaean translation of the Bible), a comprehensive designation applied to all who act as intermediaries between Europeans and Orientals, from the hotel tout or travellers' guide, hired at a few shillings a day, to the chief dragoman of a foreign embassy whose functions include the carrying on of the most important political negotiations with the Ottoman government, or the dragoman of the imperial divan (the grand master of the ceremonies).
Calculating roundly a cent as equal to a halfpenny, and eight bushels to the quarter, the above would appear in English currency as follows: Chicago to New York in Shillings and Pence per Quarter.
Henceforward he who inherits a barony must pay r¦o, he who inherits a knight's fee too shillings or less, and for smaller holdings less "according to the ancient custom of fiefs."
By the Federal Act, passed in the session of 1908, a pension of ten shillings a week was granted to persons of either sex over sixty-five years of age, or to persons over sixty who are incapacitated from earning a living.
The celebrated Gascoigne's powder, which was sold as late as the middle of the 19th century in the form of balls like sal prunella, consisted of equal parts of crabs' eyes," the black tips of crabs' claws, Oriental pearls, Oriental bezoar and white coral, and was administered in jelly made of hart's horn, but was prescribed by physicians chiefly for wealthy people, as it cost about forty shillings per ounce.
Can be made third class at a cost of only about 17 shillings, while for less than twice as much 1990 m.
In George IV.'s reign were issued the so-called "lion shillings," bearing the royal crest, a crowned lion on a crown, a design reverted to in the coinage of Edward VII.
At home many industries were suffering from the lack of tropical and colonial produce: cane sugar sold at five, and coffee at seven, shillings the pound.
Exceeds 3s., not the number of shillings in this amount.
Whaling was an established in- dustry in Rhode Island as Eearly as 1723, and in 1731 the colonial assembly provided a bounty of five shillings a barrel for whale oil, and a penny a pound for whalebone.
In the United Kingdom the excise duty is eleven shillings per proof gallon of alcohol, while the customs duty is eleven shillings and 5' g fivepence; the magnitude of these imposts may be more readily understood when one remembers that the proof gallon costs only about sevenpence to manufacture.
Under the most advantageous conditions the loss of gold may be estimated at 15 or 20%, the amount recovered representing a value of about two shillings per ton of gravel treated.
Indeed, there still existed on the statute a provision that "Masters and Bachelors who did not follow Aristotle faithfully were liable to a fine of five shillings for every point of divergence, and for every fault committed against the logic of the Organon."
The currency of the colony, which had formerly twelve shillings to the pound sterling, was assimilated to that of England in 1842.
At the time of the Domesday Survey of 1086 it already ranked as a borough, with a castle, a market paying 4 shillings, and four burgesses.
9, a uniform duty of ten shillings is payable on awards in England or Ireland, and on decreets arbitral in Scotland.
Five shillings a day, he says, served him and two men very well for meat, drink and firing.
The English Foreign Office charges two shillings for a passport, whatever number of persons may be named in it.
Except in Kent his wergild was fixed at two hundred shillings, or one-sixth of that of a thegn, and he is undoubtedly the twyhynde man of Anglo-Saxon law.
Granted Lyme to the burgesses at a fee-farm of 32 marks; on the petition of the inhabitants, who were impoverished by tempests and high tides, this was reduced to loo shillings in 1410 and to 5 marks in 1481.
Again, there was apparently but one ges16cund class in Kent, with a wergild of 300 shillings, while, on the other hand, below the ceorlisc class we find three classes of persons described as laetas, who corresponded in all probability to the liti or freedmen of the continental laws, and who possessed wergilds of 80, 60 and 40 shillings respectively.
For three years, it is true, the founders of the "Free Press" went on printing, "not only without selling a single copy, but scarcely being able to get a single copy introduced into Russia"; so that when at last a bookseller bought ten shillings' worth of Baptized Property, the half-sovereign was set aside by the surprised editors in a special place of honour.
As attendance at the fyrd was included in the trinoda necessitas it was compulsory on all holders of land; but that it was not confined to them is shown by the following extract from the laws of Ine, king of the West Saxons, dated about 690, which prescribes the penalty for the serious offence of neglecting the fyrd: "If a gesithcund man owning land neglect the fyrd, let him pay 120 shillings, and forfeit his land; one not owning land 60 shillings; a ceorlish man 30 shillings as fyrdwite."
This youthful venture was not successful, the amount he received in fees being only about five shillings a week, and after two years he took to farm work.
A house of Austin Friars was founded at Atherstone by Ralph Lord Basset of Drayton, which, however, never rose to much importance, and at its dissolution in 1536 was valued at 30 shillings and 3 pence only.
In 1198, to satisfy the king's demand for money, Hubert demanded a carucage or plough-tax of five shillings on every plough-land (carucate) under cultivation.
Silver coins are 5, 2 and I mark pieces, equivalent to 5, 2 and 1 shillings respectively, and 50 pfennige pieces=6d.
The pension began at the age of seventy, the amount varying by very complicated rules, but the state paid a fixed sum of two pounds ten shillings annually in addition to the pension.
But when his own trial was discussed in the privy council, Pitt sensibly held that Political Justice, the work on which the charge could best have been founded, was priced at three guineas, and could never do much harm among those who had not three shillings to spare.
In the trading between whites and Indians, wampum so completely took the place of ordinary coin that its value was fixed by legal enactment, three to a penny and five shillings a fathom.
The beads were at first worth more than five shillings per fathom, the price at which they passed current in 1643.
The new chancellor proposed the continuance of the land tax at four shillings in the pound, while he held out hopes that it might be reduced next year to three shillings, whereupon his predecessor, William Dowdeswell, by the aid of the landed gentlemen, carried a motion that the reduction should take effect at once.
There are no early charters extant, but in 1586 Elizabeth acknowledged the right of the mayor and burgesses to be a body corporate and to hold a court for pleas under forty shillings, two weekly markets and four annual fairs - which rights they claimed to have exercised from time immemorial.
The policy of granting land without payment, originally in force in New South Wales, had been abandoned in favour of sales of the public lands by auction at the upset price of twenty shillings per acre; and the system of squatting licences, under which colonists were allowed to occupy the waste lands on payment of a small annual licence, had been conceded.
In 1894 a new coinage was introduced, with the Menelek dollar or talari, worth about two shillings, as the standard.
Per contra the tax was wholly unfelt, a shilling a quarter only affecting an average family of four persons to the extent of three shillings per annum, or about three farthings a week, while it was paid little by little, as Adam Smith explains with regard to indirect taxes in general.
All persons with an income of £50 vote in the first; all residents in an urban commune who pay taxes amounting to sixteen shillings yearly, with those who have been through the primary course of education, and all members of the liberal professions, retired officers and state pensioners, vote in the second.
This decision created the strongest resentment among the people of the territory, as it was in distinct 1 The act enjoined that " every male native residing in the district, exclusive of natives in possession of lands under ordinary quit-rent titles, or in freehold, who, in the judgment of the resident magistrate, is fit for and capable of labour, shall pay to the public revenue a tax of ten shillings per annum unless he can show to the satisfaction of the magistrate that he has been in service beyond the borders of the district for at least three months out of the previous twelve, when he will be exempt from the tax for that year, or unless he can show that he has been employed far a total period of three years, when he will be exempt altogether."
Demanded a "loving contribution" from all who possessed lands worth not less than forty shillings a year, or chattels to the value of X15; and those who refused to make payment were summoned before the privy council and punished.
I intend the price of them, bound in calves' leather, and lettered, to be 9 shillings here.
Thus twelve pennies make a shilling, and twenty shillings a pound, while the penny is itself divided into four farthings (or 8 I 2 3 no settled of symbols ..
" twelve shillings " is denoted by 12s.
Numerical quantities, to be added or subtracted, must be in the same denomination; we cannot, for instance, add S5 shillings and loo pence, any more than we can add 3 yards and 2 metres.
0 I 2 0 I 2 0 I 2 0 I 2 The practical difficulty, of course, is that the addition of two numbers produces different results according to the scale in which we are for the moment proceeding; thus the sum of 9 and 8 is 17, 15, 13 or 11 according as we are dealing with shillings, pence, pounds (avoirdupois) or ounces.
In the above case of subdivision, for instance, each of the 5 shillings is separately converted into pence, so that we do in fact find in succession once 12d., twice 12d.,..
Thus we get successive multiplication; but it represents quite different operations according as it is due to repetition, in the sense of § 34, or to subdivision, and these operations will be exhibited by different diagrams. Of the two diagrams below, A exhibits the successive multiplication of £3 by 20, 12 and 4, and B the successive reduction of £3 to shillings, pence and farthings.
It should be noticed that in multiplying £3 by 20 we find the value of 20.3, but that in reducing £3 to shillings, since each £ becomes 20S., we find the value of 3.20.
Is a mixed quantity, being expressed in pounds and shillings; to express it in terms of pounds only we must write itL3-1-70-.
As shillings and pence and also the expression of 3067s.
As shillings we multiply 153 by 20 and add 7.
For reduction of pounds to shillings, or shillings to pounds, we must consider that we have a multiple-table (§ 36) in which the multiples of £I and of 20S.
Are arranged in parallel columns; and similarly for shillings and pence.
Similarly, to convert £153 into shillings we must multiply it by a factor 2 £I ' ' so that we get 2£I.
Is 35 s., we take out 20 of the 35 shillings, and exchange them for £1.
In Charles II.'s reign shillings were first issued with milled edges.
A shilling is token money merely, it is nominally in value the one-twentieth of a pound, but one troy pound of silver is coined into sixty-six shillings, the standard weight of each shilling being 87.27 grains.
Profane cursing and swearing is made punishable by the Profane Oaths Act 1745, which directs the offender to be brought before a justice of the peace, and fined five shillings, two shillings or one shilling, according as he is a gentleman, below the rank of gentleman, or a common labourer, soldier, &c.
In shillings and pence.
In Shillings and Pence per Quarter of 480 lb.
In Shillings and Pence per Ton of 2240 lb.
1200, 600 and 200 shillings respectively.
Here the wergild of the ceorlisc class amounted to ioo shillings, each containing twenty silver coins (sceattas), as against zoo shillings of four (in Wessex five) silver coins, and was thus very much greater than the latter.