Wide, extending from Iceland to the Faeroe Islands, the Shetland Islands and the coast of Norway.
The first passes northwards, most of it between the Faeroe and Shetland Islands, to the coast of Norway, and so on to the Arctic basin, which, as Nansen has shown, it fills to a great depth.
JAMES HEPBURN BOTHWELL, 4TH Earl Of, duke of Orkney and Shetland (c. 1536-1578), husband of Mary, queen of Scots, son of Patrick, 3rd earl of Bothwell, and of Agnes, daughter of Henry, Lord Sinclair, was born about 1536.
Subsequently Bothwell left Dunbar for the north, visited Orkney and Shetland, and in July placed himself at the head of a band of pirates, and after eluding all attempts to capture him, arrived at Karm Sound in Norway.
LERWICK, a municipal and police burgh of Shetland, Scotland, the most northerly town in the British Isles.
In Europe there is good reason to suppose that it includes Shetland; but it is on the north-western coast of the Continent, from Jutland to the extreme north of Norway, that the greatest number are reared.
The houses, mostly white with coloured roofs, are generally built of wood and iron, and have glazed porches, gay with fuchsias and pelargoniums. Government House, grey, stone-built and slated, calls to mind a manse in Shetland or Orkney.
(Norse Sudr-eyjar, Sudreys, or southern isles, in distinction from Nordr-eyjar, the northern isles of Orkney and Shetland) and the Isle of Man.
Other horsebreeders' associations, all doing useful work in the interests of their respective breeds, are the Suffolk Horse Society, the Clydesdale Horse Society, the Yorkshire Coach Horse Society, the Cleveland Bay Horse Society, the Polo Pony Society, the Shetland Pony Stud Book Society, the Welsh Pony and Cob Society and the New Forest Pony Association.
Nearly all the parishes in Argyll, Inverness, Ross, Cromarty, Sutherland, Caithness and Orkney and Shetland answer to this description.
The Basuto ponies, said to be descended from Shetland ponies which, imported to the Cape in 1840, strayed into the mountains, are short-legged, strong-bodied, sure-footed, and noted for their hardiness.
Four instances have, however, been recorded of its occurrence on the British coasts, one on the coast of Norfolk in 1588, one in the Firth of Forth in 1648, one near Boston in Lincolnshire in 1800, while a fourth entangled itself among rocks in the Sound of Weesdale, Shetland, in September 1808.
From north to south - as great a distance as from Land's End in England to the north of the Shetland Isles - it is natural that the climate should vary considerably between parallels of 49° and 60° N., and also between 1 io and W.
SHETLAND, or ZETLAND, a group of islands constituting a county of Scotland, and the most northerly British possession in Europe.
The distance from Dennis Head in North Ronaldshay of the Orkneys to Sumburgh Head in Shetland is 50 m., but Fair Isle, which belongs to Shetland, lies midway between the groups.
The shores are so extensively indented with voes, or firths - the result partly of denudation and partly caused by glaciers - that no spot in Shetland is more than 3 m.
The well-known Shetland breed of shaggy ponies are in steady demand for underground work in collieries.
Since 1890 the herring fishery has advanced rapidly, and the Shetland fishery district is the most important north of Aberdeenshire.
The parish of Walls, in the west, is said to contain more voes, whence its name (an erroneous rendering of the Norse waas), than all the rest of Shetland; while the neck of land at Mavis Grind (Norse, maev, narrow; eid, isthmus;.
Both Noss and Bressay are utilized in connexion with the rearing of Shetland ponies.
Farther north, at the head of a small bay, lies Haroldswick, where Harold Haarfager is believed to have landed in 872, when he annexed the Orkney and Shetland Islands to Norway.
Of Unst, is the most northerly point of Shetland, and the site of a lighthouse.
Shetland unites with Orkney to return a member to parliament.
There are parish poorhouses in Dunrossness and Unst, besides the Shetland combination poorhouse at Lerwick.
The word Shetland is supposed to be simply a modernized rendering of the Old Norse Hjaltland, of which the meaning is variously given as "high land," "Hjalti's land" - after Hjalti, a man whose name occurs in ancient Norse literature, but of whom little else is known - and "hilt land," in allusion to an imagined, though not too obvious, resemblance in the configuration of the archipelago to the hilt of a sword.
Henceforward the history of Shetland is scarcely separable from that of Orkney (q.v.).
George Low (1747-1795), the naturalist and historian of Orkney, who made a tour through Shetland in 1774, described a Runic monument which he saw in the churchyard of Crosskirk, in Northmavine parish (Mainland), and several fragments of Norse swords, shield bosses and brooches have been dug up from time to time.
See George Low, Tour through the Islands of Orkney and Shetland in 1774 (published in 1879); A.
Edmondston, Zetland Islands (1809); Samuel Hibbert-Ware, Description of the Shetland Isles (1822); C. Rampini, Shetland and the Islanders (1884); C. Sinclair, Shetland and the Shetlanders (1840); R.
Cowie, Shetland (1896); Dr Jakob Jakobsen, The Dialect and Place Names of Shetland (1897).
This main scheme is complicated in various ways: (r) by the rotation of the earth, which continually deflects currents of water or air to the right in the northern or to the left in the southern hemisphere; (2) by the conformation of the land masses (as in the case of the equatorial stream which is banked up in the Gulf of Mexico and flows out through the Straits of Florida); (3) by the varying depth of the ocean, for currents tend to flow more readily through deep than in shallow waters (as in the case of the main Atlantic drift, which flows most strongly through the deep channel between Shetland and the Faroe Is.); and (4) by the driving force of the winds acting on the surface of the sea (thus the drift of water from the equator is not N.E., as one might expect, but from E.
Of Shetland and (to a far less extent) through the English Channel.
On the 20th of August 1589, in spite of Queen Elizabeth's opposition, she was married by proxy to King James, without dower, the alliance, however, settling definitely the Scottish claims to the Orkney and Shetland Islands.
M.) with depths down to 2200 fathoms. A rise between Spitsbergen and Greenland separates the Norwegian Trough (greatest depth 2005 fathoms in 68° 21' N., 2° 5' W.) which in turn is divided from the Atlantic by the Wyville Thomson Ridge which runs between the Faeroe and Shetland islands and is covered by only 314 fathoms of water at the deepest point.
Hake, ling, haddock, &c. The most important centres of the cod-liver oil industry are Lofoten and Romsdal in Norway; the oil is also prepared in the United States, Canada, Newfoundland, Iceland and Russia; and at one time a considerable quantity was prepared in the Shetland Islands and along the east coast of Scotland.
Domesticated goats have run wild in many islands, such as the Hebrides, Shetland, Canaries, Azores, Ascension and Juan Fernandez.
Mention is made of incursions of the vikings as early as 793, but the principal immigration took place towards the end of the 9th century in the early part of the reign of Harald Fairhair, king of Norway, and consisted of persons driven to the Hebrides, as well as to Orkney and Shetland, to escape from his tyrannous rule.
Soon afterwards they began to make incursions against their mother-country, and on this account Harald fitted out an expedition against them, and placed Orkney, Shetland, the Hebrides and the Isle of Man under Norwegian government.
Magnus, son of Haakon, concluded in 1266 a peace with the Scots, renouncing all claim to the Hebrides and other islands except Orkney and Shetland, and Alexander III.
Shorthorns and polled Angus are the commonest breeds of cattle; the sheep are mostly Cheviots and a Cheviot-Leicester cross, but the native sheep are still reared in considerable numbers in Hoy and South Ronaldshay; pigs are also kept on several of the islands, and the horses - as a rule hardy, active and small, though larger than the famous Shetland ponies - are very numerous, but mainly employed in connexion with agricultural work.
Orkney unites with Shetland to send one member to parliament, and Kirkwall, the county town and the only royal burgh, is one of the Wick district groups of parliamentary burghs.
Orkney forms a sheriffdom with Shetland and Caithness, and a resident sheriff-substitute sits at Kirkwall.
Vigfusson, translated by Sir George Dasent (1887-1894), and the edition of Dr Joseph Anderson (1873); James Wallace, Account of the Islands of Orkney (1700; new ed., 1884); George Low, Tour through the Islands of Orkney and Shetland in 1774 (1879); G.
Tudor, Orkney and Shetland (1883).
About the same time, and largely owing to the exertions of Olaf, Iceland, Greenland and the Orkney and Shetland islands were also evangelized.
(about that of the Shetland Islands).
However, the highest cliffs are found among the Shetland and Orkney Islands.
The sea-wall of Foula, in Shetland, and the western front of Hoy, in Orkney, rise like walls to heights of 1100 or 1200 ft.
In the northern, north-western and southern divisions the population declined during the decade, the fifteen counties thus affected being, in the order of decrease, beginning with the shire in which it was smallest, Inverness, Banff, Argyll, Kirkcudbright, Shetland, Sutherland, Dumfries, Ross and Cromarty, Clackmannan, Berwick, Orkney, Roxburgh, Caithness, Wigtown and Selkirk.
Under the Congested Districts (Scotland) Act of 18 97, £35, 0 0 0 a year was devoted within certain districts of Argyll, Inverness, Ross and Cromarty, Sutherland, Caithness, Orkney and Shetland, to assisting migration, improving the breeds of live stock, building piers and boatslips, making roads and bridges, developing home industries, &c.