Hayes, the new president, having chosen John Sherman to be his secretary of the treasury, an effort was made to send Garfield to the United States Senate in Sherman's place.
Blaine, of Maine, and the other John Sherman, of Ohio.
On the thirty-fourth he received seventeen, on the next fifty, and on the next almost the entire vote hitherto cast for Blaine and Sherman, and was declared nominated.
Sherman, Philip H.
Being ordered to co-operate with Sherman in North Carolina, Schofield moved his corps by rail and sea to Fort Fisher, North Carolina, in seventeen days, occupied Wilmington on the 22nd of February 1865, fought the action at Kinston on the 8 - 10th of March, and on the 23rd joined Sherman at Goldsboro.
Among the measures and events distinguishing his term as president were the following: The meeting of the Pan-American Congress at Washington; the passage of the McKinley Tariff Bill and of the Sherman Silver Bill of 1890; the suppressing of the Louisiana Lottery; the enlargement of the navy; further advance in civil service reform; the convocation by the United States of an international monetary conference; the establishment of commercial reciprocity with many countries of America and Europe; the peaceful settlement of a controversy with Chile; the negotiation of a Hawaiian Annexation Treaty, which, however, before its ratification, his successor withdrew from the Senate; the settlement of difficulties with Germany concerning the Samoan Islands, and the adjustment by arbitration with Great Britain of the Bering Sea fur-seal question.
His work in connexion with the drafting of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and with the Bering Sea controversy attracted attention.
Sherman of New York was nominated for Vice-President.
At the ensuing election in November, Taft and Sherman received 321 electoral votes against 162 cast for William Jennings Bryan and John W.
In his inaugural address (4th March 1909) President Taft announced himself as favouring the maintenance and enforcement of the reforms initiated by President Roosevelt (including a strict enforcement of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, an effective measure for railway rate regulation, and the policy of conservation of natural resources); the revision of the tariff on the basis of affording protection to American manufactures equal to the difference between home and foreign cost of production; a graduated inheritance tax; a strong navy as the best guarantee of peace; postal savings banks; free trade with the Philippine Islands; and mail subsidies for American ships.
On the 8th of June he was appointed on a committee with Jefferson, Franklin, Livingston and Sherman to draft a Declaration of Independence; and although that document was by the request of the committee written by Thomas Jefferson, it was John Adams who occupied the foremost place in the debate on its adoption.
In the Atlanta campaign under Sherman he gained considerable distinction, rising successively to the rank of brigadier-general in 1864 and major-general in 1865.
After the battles around Marietta, and the crossing of the Chattahoochee river on the 8th and 9th of July, Sherman continued his advance against Atlanta.
Sherman quickly realized this, and the Army of the Tennessee, now commanded by Gen.
Another cavalry raid effected but slight damage to the line, and Sherman now decided to take his whole force to the south side.
All citizens were now ordered to leave, the place was turned into a military camp, and when Sherman started on his "March to the Sea," on the 15th of November, a large part of the city was burned.
Sherman and his army took possession of the town, destroyed the arsenal, and did considerable damage to property.
Two of his speeches in particular attracted attention, one against the policy of protection (16th of March 1892), and the other against the repeal of the silver purchase clause of the Sherman Act (16th of August 1893).
The Democratic party was even more radically divided on the question of monetary policy than the Republican; and President Cleveland, by securing the repeal of the silver purchase clause in the Sherman Act by Republican votes, had alienated a great majority of his party.
Sherman, the Federal commander, made Marietta his next intermediate point in his Atlanta campaign, and the Confederate commander, General Joseph E.
After several preliminary engagements Sherman on the 26th and 27th of June made repeated unsuccessful attempts to drive the Confederates from their defences at Kenesaw Mountain; he then resorted to a flanking movement which forced the Confederate general to retire (July 2) toward Atlanta.
At Millen better arrangements prevailed, and when, after Sherman began his march to the sea, the prisoners were returned to Andersonville, the conditions there were somewhat improved.
JOHN SHERMAN (1823-1900), American financier and statesman, a younger brother of General W.
Sherman, was born at Lancaster, Ohio, on the 10th of May 1823.
During this period he was largely concerned in the enactment of the Anti-Trust Law of 1890, and of the so-called Sherman Act of the same year, providing for the purchase of silver and the issuing of Treasury notes based upon it.
A selection from the correspondence of John Sherman and his brother Gen.
Sherman was published as The Sherman Letters in 1894.
Sherman published Recollections of Forty Years in the House, Senate and Cabinet: an Autobiography (Chicago and New York, 1895).
In 1787, with Roger Sherman and William Samuel Johnson (1727-1819), he was one of Connecticut's delegates to the constitutional convention at Philadelphia, in which his services were numerous and important.
In particular, when disagreement seemed inevitable on the question of representation, he, with Roger Sherman, proposed what is known as the "Connecticut Compromise," by which the Federal legislature was made to consist of two houses, the upper having equal representation from each state, the lower being chosen on the basis of population.
At a critical moment he actually left the Virginian armies to their own commanders, and started to take personal command in a threatened quarter, and throughout he was in close touch with Sherman and Thomas,.
Later in 1863, when the battle of Chattanooga brought the Federals to the borders of Georgia, Johnston was assigned to command the Army of Tennessee at Dalton, and in the early days of May 1864 the combined armies of the North under Sherman advanced against his lines.
For the main outlines of the famous campaign between Sherman and Johnston see American Civil War (§ 29).
The great numerical superiority of the Federals enabled Sherman to press back the Confederates without a pitched battle, but the severity of the skirmishing may be judged from the casualties of the two armies (Sherman's about 26,000 men, Johnston's over io,000), and the obstinate steadiness of Johnston by the fact that his opponent hardly progressed more than one mile a day.
The duel of Sherman and Johnston is almost as personal a contest between two great captains as were the campaigns of Turenne and Montecucculi.
From 1891 until 1897 he was a member of the United States Senate, in which, during President Cleveland's second term, he was recognized as the chief defender of the Administration, and he was especially active in securing the repeal of the silverpurchase clause of the Sherman Act.
WILLIAM TECUMSEH SHERMAN (1820-1891), American general, was born on the 8th of February 1820, at Lancaster, Ohio.
He was descended from Edmond Sherman, who emigrated from England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1634.
Sherman, a judge of the Supreme Court of Ohio, died suddenly in 1829, leaving his widow with a family of young children.
The usual changes of station and detached duty made him acquainted with the geography of all the Southern states, and Sherman improved the opportunity by making topographical studies which proved of no small value to him later.
In 1859, the state of Louisiana proposing to establish a military college, Sherman was appointed its superintendent.
On the 1st of January 1860 the "State Seminary of Learning and Military Academy" was opened, and here Sherman remained until the spring of 1861, when it was evident that Louisiana would join the states seceding from the Union.
Though his brother John Sherman was a leader in the party which had elected Lincoln, William Sherman was very conservative on the slavery question, and his distress at what he thought an unnecessary rupture between the states was extreme.
Promoted, brigadier-general of volunteers, Sherman was in August sent to Kentucky to serve under General Robert Anderson.
In Grant's final Vicksburg campaign Sherman commanded the XV.
When, after Rosecrans's defeat at Chickamauga, Grant was placed in supreme command in the west, Sherman succeeded to the command of the Army of the Tennessee, with which he took part in the great battle of Chattanooga.
After a brilliant and famous campaign of careful manoeuvre and heavy combats (see American Civil War), Sherman finally wrested Atlanta from the Confederates on the 1st of September.
Sherman thereupon, leaving behind Thomas and Schofield to deal with Hood, made the celebrated "March to the Sea" from Atlanta to Savannah with 60,000 picked men.
In January 1865 Sherman marched northwards again, once more abandoning his base, towards Petersburg, where Grant and Lee were waging a war of giants.
Sherman defeated him and reached Raleigh, the capital of North Carolina, on the r3th of April, having marched nearly 500 m.